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Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 1

‘Globalisation’ today mainly refers to :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 1

The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems.One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. The term 'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, and in other senses since at least as early as 1944.Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 2

The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 2
The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. Its framework was agreed upon at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 3

What was the Bretton Woods system?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 3
The Bretton Woods System
The Bretton Woods system refers to a post-war international economic system that was established during the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944. The conference aimed to create a framework for economic cooperation and stability after World War II.
Key Points:
- Purpose: The Bretton Woods system was designed to facilitate international trade and promote economic stability by establishing rules and procedures for monetary and financial relations among the major economies.
- Fixed Exchange Rates: Under the Bretton Woods system, participating countries agreed to fix their exchange rates to the U.S. dollar, which was tied to gold at a fixed price. This system aimed to promote stability and prevent competitive devaluations.
- International Monetary Fund (IMF): The conference also established the IMF to serve as a global organization that would oversee the international monetary system, provide financial assistance to member countries facing balance of payments problems, and promote exchange rate stability.
- World Bank: Another important institution created at the Bretton Woods conference was the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which later became part of the World Bank. The World Bank aimed to provide financial and technical assistance for post-war reconstruction and development projects.
- Collapse: The Bretton Woods system eventually collapsed in the early 1970s due to various factors, including the growing imbalance in international trade, inflationary pressures, and the inability of the U.S. to maintain the convertibility of the dollar to gold.
- Legacy: Despite its eventual demise, the Bretton Woods system had a significant impact on the international monetary system and laid the foundation for future institutions and agreements such as the floating exchange rate regime and the establishment of the World Trade Organization.
In conclusion, the Bretton Woods system was a post-war international economic system that aimed to promote economic stability and facilitate international trade. It established fixed exchange rates, created the IMF and World Bank, and had a lasting impact on the global monetary system.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 4

Which of the following statements is a true definition of what the economists identify as “flows”?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 4
Definition of Flows

Economists identify "flows" as various types of movements or exchanges that occur within an economy. These flows can include:



  • Trade in goods: This refers to the exchange of physical goods, such as cloth or wheat, between countries or regions.

  • Migration of people: This involves individuals moving from one place to another in search of employment opportunities.

  • Movement of capital: Capital refers to financial assets or investments. The movement of capital can be for short-term or long-term purposes, such as investing in stocks, bonds, or real estate.

  • Economic exchanges: This encompasses a wide range of economic activities, including trade, investment, and financial transactions.

  • Social exchanges: These involve interactions and exchanges of ideas, values, and cultural practices between individuals or groups.

  • Cultural exchanges: This refers to the sharing and diffusion of cultural elements, such as language, customs, and traditions.

  • Technological exchanges: These involve the transfer and dissemination of technological knowledge or innovations between individuals, organizations, or countries.


Therefore, the correct definition of "flows" as identified by economists is:


A: Trade in goods (cloth or wheat), migration of people in search of employment, and movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 5

The two evidences we have of India carrying on an active coastal trade in ancient times are :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 5

From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution. As early as 3000 BCE an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisations with present-day West Asia.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 6

The most powerful weapon, which the Spanish conquerors of America had, was :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 6
Explanation:
The most powerful weapon that the Spanish conquerors of America had was a combination of factors, including superiority in conventional weapons and the introduction of deadly diseases to which the native inhabitants had no immunity. This combination of factors greatly facilitated the conquest of America by the Spanish.
Superiority in conventional weapons:
- The Spanish conquistadors had access to advanced weaponry such as guns, cannons, and steel weapons.
- These weapons gave them a significant advantage over the native populations, who often fought with less advanced weapons like bows and arrows or stone weapons.
- The Spanish were able to overpower and defeat indigenous armies with their superior firepower.
Introduction of deadly diseases:
- The arrival of the Spanish brought diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza to which the native populations had no immunity.
- These diseases spread rapidly and devastated the indigenous populations, leading to a significant decrease in their numbers.
- The weakened indigenous populations were more susceptible to Spanish conquest and colonization.
Combined effect:
- The combination of superior weaponry and the introduction of deadly diseases created a devastating impact on the indigenous populations.
- The Spanish were able to defeat and subjugate native armies with their advanced weapons, while the diseases decimated the population, making resistance more difficult.
- This combination of factors paved the way for Spanish conquest and colonization of America.
In conclusion, the most powerful weapon that the Spanish conquerors of America had was a combination of superiority in conventional weapons and the introduction of deadly diseases to which the native populations had no immunity. This combination greatly facilitated their conquest and colonization of America.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 7

Beside clearing land, what else was needed to increase food production in the world in the 19th century?

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 7
Factors needed to increase food production in the world in the 19th century:
Railways to link agricultural regions, harbors to be expanded or built for new cargoes:
- Construction of railways allowed for faster transportation of agricultural products from rural areas to urban centers.
- Improved transportation infrastructure enabled farmers to access larger markets and sell their produce more efficiently.
- Expansion of harbors facilitated the export of agricultural goods to international markets, increasing trade opportunities.
Building homes and settlements for those working on land:
- As agricultural production increased, there was a need for housing and settlements to accommodate the growing number of workers in rural areas.
- Establishing proper living conditions for agricultural workers was essential for their well-being and productivity.
Capital and labor:
- The availability of capital was crucial for investing in modern farming techniques, machinery, and infrastructure.
- Adequate labor was required to cultivate and harvest crops efficiently.
- The expansion of food production required both financial resources and a sufficient workforce.
Conclusion:
To increase food production in the world in the 19th century, it was necessary to not only clear land but also develop railways, expand harbors, build homes and settlements for agricultural workers, and have access to capital and labor. All of these factors worked together to improve agricultural productivity and facilitate the distribution of food to meet the growing demands of the population.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 8

The number of people who migrated from Europe to America and Australia and other parts of the world in the 19th century was nearly

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 8

To determine the number of people who migrated from Europe to America and Australia and other parts of the world in the 19th century, we can analyze the given options:
A: 10 million from Europe and 100 million from all over the world:
- This option only considers the number of people from Europe and the total number from all over the world, without specifying the destinations.
- It does not provide information about the migration to America and Australia specifically.
- This option is not a suitable choice as it lacks specific details.
B: 20 million from Europe and about 150 million from all over the world:
- This option provides a specific number of people from Europe (20 million) and the total number from all over the world (about 150 million).
- However, it does not mention the specific destinations of migration.
- This option is also not a suitable choice as it lacks specific details about migration to America and Australia.
C: 50 million people from Europe to America and Australia and 150 million from all over the world migrate:
- This option provides a specific number of people from Europe (50 million) and the total number from all over the world (150 million).
- It also mentions the specific destinations of migration, including America and Australia.
- This option is the most suitable choice as it provides specific details about migration to America and Australia.
D: The number is not certain, not enough proof:
- This option suggests that there is not enough evidence or proof to determine the number of migrants.
- It does not provide any specific details or estimates.
- This option is not a suitable choice as it does not provide any useful information.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: 50 million people from Europe to America and Australia and 150 million from all over the world migrate.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 9

The dramatic changes in global agricultural economy by 1890, were :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 9

i) By 1890, a global agricultural economy had taken shape. It was accompanied by complex changes in labour movement patterns, capital flows, ecologies and technology.

(ii) Food no longer came from a nearby village or town, but from thousands of miles away.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 10

Indentured labour means :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 10
Indentured labour means:
A: Labour, which is marked by identification marks on their bodies
- This statement is incorrect. Indentured labour is not marked by identification marks on their bodies.
B: A bonded labourer, under contract to work for a specific time for his employer, to pay off his passage to a new country or home
- This statement is correct. Indentured labour refers to individuals who are bound by a contract to work for a specific period of time in order to repay the cost of their transportation to a new country or home.
C: A Slave brought in a share market
- This statement is incorrect. Indentured labour is different from slavery. Slaves are considered property and have no contractual agreement with their owners.
D: All the above
- This statement is incorrect. Only option B is correct. Indentured labour does not involve identification marks or being bought and sold in a share market.
In conclusion, option B is the correct answer. Indentured labour refers to individuals who are bound by a contract to work for a specific period of time in order to pay off their passage to a new country or home.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 11

The example of indentured labour’s migration from India illustrates :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 11
The example of indentured labour's migration from India illustrates:
- The two-sided nature of the 19th century world: The migration of indentured labor from India during the 19th century highlights the dual nature of the world during that time. On one hand, there was faster economic growth and development in certain areas, while on the other hand, there was great misery, poverty, and exploitation for others.
- A world of faster economic growth as well as great misery, higher income for some and poverty for others: The migration of indentured laborers from India was driven by the need for cheap labor in various industries such as sugar plantations, railways, and mines. This demand for labor led to faster economic growth and higher incomes for those who benefitted from it, such as plantation owners and industrialists. However, for the indentured laborers themselves, it often meant great misery, poor living conditions, and low wages, resulting in poverty and hardship.
- Technological advances in some areas, new forms of coercion in others: The migration of indentured labor also highlights the uneven distribution of technological advances during the 19th century. While some areas experienced technological progress and industrialization, other areas relied on new forms of coercion, such as indentured servitude, to meet their labor needs. This demonstrates how different parts of the world were at different stages of development and faced different challenges during this time.
- All the above: The example of indentured labor's migration from India encompasses all of the above factors. It showcases the two-sided nature of the 19th century world, with both economic growth and misery, higher income for some and poverty for others. It also highlights the technological advances in some areas and the use of new forms of coercion in others. Therefore, the answer is D, all of the above.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 12

In the 19th century hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 12
Answer:
In the 19th century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese laborers went to work on various projects around the world. Here is a detailed explanation of their work:
Mines:
- These laborers worked in mines, particularly in countries like South Africa, where there were diamond and gold mines.
- They played a crucial role in the extraction and processing of these precious minerals.
Plantations:
- Indian and Chinese laborers were also employed on plantations in different parts of the world.
- They worked on tea, coffee, rubber, sugar, and tobacco plantations, contributing to the agricultural industry.
Road and Railway Construction:
- These laborers were involved in the construction of roads and railways across various countries.
- They helped in the expansion of transportation networks, facilitating trade and development.
Other Construction Projects:
- Apart from roads and railways, Indian and Chinese laborers were also engaged in other construction projects worldwide.
- They worked on building projects such as bridges, canals, dams, and buildings, contributing to infrastructure development.
Migration and Global Impact:
- The migration of Indian and Chinese laborers had a significant impact on the global labor market.
- They provided cheap and abundant labor, meeting the demands of expanding industries and economies.
- Their work helped in the development of various nations and contributed to the growth of international trade.
Therefore, in the 19th century, Indian and Chinese laborers went to work on mines, plantations, road and railway construction projects, and other construction projects around the world.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 13

Indian nationalist leaders began opposing the system of indentured labour migration from the 1900s because:

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 13
Reasons why Indian nationalist leaders began opposing the system of indentured labour migration:

  1. Abusive and cruel:

    • Indian nationalist leaders considered the system of indentured labour migration to be abusive, cruel, and a new form of slavery.



  2. Stigmatization of Indian indentured workers:

    • Indian indentured workers were often referred to as "coolies" in the Caribbean, which carried a derogatory connotation.



  3. Lack of legal rights and harsh living conditions:

    • The minority migrants were given few legal rights, making them vulnerable to exploitation and mistreatment.

    • The living and working conditions of the indentured workers were often harsh and unfavorable.



  4. All of the above:

    • All of the mentioned reasons contributed to the opposition of Indian nationalist leaders towards the system of indentured labour migration.




Therefore, the correct answer is D: All the above.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 14

Name one Nobel Prize winning writer who was a descendant of indentured labour migrants :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 14
Answer:
To identify a Nobel Prize winning writer who was a descendant of indentured labour migrants, we need to examine the options provided:
A: Shivnaraine Chander Paul - There is no evidence or information available to suggest that Shivnaraine Chander Paul was a Nobel Prize winning writer or a descendant of indentured labour migrants.
B: Ramnaresh Sarwan - Ramnaresh Sarwan is a former West Indian cricketer and not a Nobel Prize winning writer or a descendant of indentured labour migrants.
C: V.S. Naipaul - V.S. Naipaul, born in Trinidad and Tobago, was a Nobel Prize winning writer and his ancestors were indentured labour migrants from India. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001 for his novels and non-fiction works.
D: Ram Narain Tewary - There is no evidence or information available to suggest that Ram Narain Tewary was a Nobel Prize winning writer or a descendant of indentured labour migrants.
Therefore, the correct answer is option C: V.S. Naipaul.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 15

Indentured labour system was abolished in India in :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 15
Indentured labour system in India:
The indentured labour system in India was a system in which workers were contracted to work for a specific period of time, usually in a foreign country, in exchange for their passage and other benefits. This system was prevalent during the colonial period, particularly in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Abolition of the indentured labour system:
The indentured labour system was officially abolished in India in 1921. The decision to abolish the system came after years of resistance and protests by workers and activists who highlighted the exploitative nature of the system.
The key factors that led to the abolition of the indentured labour system in India include:
1. Worker resistance: The workers who were subjected to the indentured labour system faced harsh working conditions, low wages, and limited rights. Over time, they organized themselves and began to resist the system through strikes, protests, and other forms of collective action.
2. International pressure: The indentured labour system was widely criticized by international organizations and human rights activists for its exploitative nature. This international pressure played a significant role in drawing attention to the issue and pushing for its abolition.
3. Emergence of nationalist movements: The early 20th century saw the rise of nationalist movements in India, which advocated for the rights and welfare of Indian workers. These movements played a crucial role in mobilizing public support and raising awareness about the need to end the indentured labour system.
4. Legislative reforms: The Indian government introduced several legislative reforms aimed at improving the conditions of workers and gradually phasing out the indentured labour system. These reforms included the Indian Emigration Act of 1901 and the Abolition of Indentured Labour Act of 1921.
Overall, the abolition of the indentured labour system in India was a significant milestone in the country's history, marking the end of a system that exploited and marginalized workers. It was a result of the collective efforts of workers, activists, and nationalist movements, as well as international pressure and legislative reforms.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 16

The reasons why the inflow of fine Indian cotton into Britain and other countries declined in the 19th century were :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 16
Reasons for the decline in the inflow of fine Indian cotton into Britain and other countries in the 19th century:
1. Industrialisation and expansion of cotton manufacture in Britain:
- The Industrial Revolution in Britain led to the development of new machinery and technology for the production of cotton goods.
- This resulted in the growth of domestic cotton manufacturing industries in Britain, which reduced the dependence on imported Indian cotton.
2. Imposition of tariff on cloth imported into Britain to protect local industries:
- To protect and promote their own domestic industries, the British government imposed tariffs on imported cloth, including Indian cotton.
- This made it more expensive for Indian cotton to enter the British market, discouraging its inflow.
3. British manufacturers began to seek overseas markets for their cloth:
- As British cotton manufacturers expanded and improved their production capabilities, they looked for new markets to sell their cloth.
- They started exporting their products to other countries, creating stiff competition for Indian cotton in international markets.
- This shift in focus reduced the demand for Indian cotton in Britain and other countries.
Conclusion:
The decline in the inflow of fine Indian cotton into Britain and other countries in the 19th century can be attributed to a combination of factors, including the industrialization and expansion of cotton manufacture in Britain, the imposition of tariffs on imported cloth, and the emergence of British manufacturers seeking overseas markets. These factors collectively reduced the demand for Indian cotton and shifted the dynamics of the global cotton trade.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 17

Which Indian town is shown in the picture and why ?

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 18

The British ‘trade surplus’ with India in the 19th century helped Britain :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 18
Explanation:
The British 'trade surplus' with India in the 19th century helped Britain:
A: To balance its trade deficits with other countries
- The trade surplus with India allowed Britain to offset trade deficits it had with other countries.
- By exporting more goods to India than it imported, Britain was able to maintain a favorable balance of trade overall.
B: It helped to pay home charges that included private remittances by British officials and traders
- British officials and traders in India sent remittances back to Britain, which contributed to the trade surplus.
- These remittances helped to cover the home charges, which included the salaries and pensions of British officials and traders in India.
C: Britain could pay interest payments on India's external debts and pensions of British officials in India
- The trade surplus provided Britain with the necessary funds to make interest payments on India's external debts.
- It also allowed Britain to pay the pensions of British officials who served in India.
D: All the above
- The correct answer is D, as all of the above statements are true.
- The British trade surplus with India in the 19th century served multiple purposes and helped Britain in various financial aspects.
- It not only balanced trade deficits with other countries but also facilitated the payment of home charges and external debts, as well as the pensions of British officials in India.
Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 19

The foods introduced in Europe after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent, later known as America, were :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 19

Foods such as potato which were unknown before were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered the vast continent known as the Americas.

Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 20

The Europeans brought to Africa a devastating disease which destroyed :

Detailed Solution for Test: The Making of a Global World - 4 - Question 20

Rinderpest a cattle disease arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa. Along the way rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle.

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