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DNA and RNA Video Lecture | Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

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FAQs on DNA and RNA Video Lecture - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

1. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
Ans. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-stranded molecule that carries the genetic information in all living organisms. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a single-stranded molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. The main difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, while RNA contains the sugar ribose. Additionally, DNA uses the nitrogenous base thymine, while RNA uses uracil instead.
2. How does DNA replication occur?
Ans. DNA replication is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division. It occurs in three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. During initiation, the double helix of DNA is unwound by enzymes called helicases, creating a replication fork. In the elongation stage, DNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to each of the original strands, creating two new DNA strands. Finally, in termination, the replication is completed, and two identical copies of the DNA molecule are formed.
3. What is the role of RNA in protein synthesis?
Ans. RNA plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, which is the process by which proteins are made in cells. There are three types of RNA involved: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). mRNA carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. tRNA brings the amino acids to the ribosomes, matching them with their corresponding codons on the mRNA. rRNA, along with proteins, makes up the ribosomes, which are the sites of protein synthesis.
4. What is the significance of DNA and RNA in genetics?
Ans. DNA and RNA are essential in the field of genetics. DNA carries the genetic information that determines the traits and characteristics of an organism. It serves as the blueprint for the synthesis of proteins and plays a crucial role in inheritance. RNA, on the other hand, is involved in gene expression and regulation. It helps in the translation of genetic information into functional proteins. Understanding the structure and function of DNA and RNA is fundamental in studying genetics and unraveling the mechanisms of heredity.
5. How do mutations in DNA and RNA affect genetic information?
Ans. Mutations in DNA and RNA can alter the genetic information and have various effects on organisms. Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral. Harmful mutations can lead to genetic disorders or diseases, while beneficial mutations can contribute to the evolution and adaptation of species. Mutations can cause changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins, affecting their structure and function. Additionally, mutations can disrupt gene expression and regulation, leading to abnormal protein synthesis. The study of mutations helps in understanding genetic diseases and the processes of evolution.
146 videos|356 docs|249 tests

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