Explanation: A slightly different serial port called RS232 is used for long distance communication, otherwise the clock may get skewed. The low voltage signal also affect the long distance communication.
LEDs, or Light Emitting Diodes, are semiconductor devices that emit light when an electric current passes through them. Biasing is the process of applying a voltage to a device in order to establish a desired operating condition. In the case of LEDs, the biasing is done through reverse bias.
Reverse Bias in LEDs
Reverse biasing means applying a voltage with the positive terminal connected to the cathode and the negative terminal connected to the anode of the LED. This causes the LED to be in an "off" state, meaning no light is emitted.
Working of Reverse Bias in LEDs
When an LED is reverse biased, a small current called the reverse leakage current flows through the LED. This current is extremely small and does not produce any visible light. However, the reverse bias voltage is important in maintaining the integrity of the LED and protecting it from excessive current.
The reverse bias voltage creates a barrier between the p-type and n-type regions of the LED, known as the depletion region. This region prevents the flow of majority carriers (electrons in the p-type region and holes in the n-type region) and allows only a small leakage current to pass through.
Benefits of Reverse Biasing in LEDs
Reverse biasing in LEDs offers several advantages:
1. Protection: Reverse biasing protects the LED from excessive current, preventing it from burning out. It acts as a safety measure to ensure the longevity of the LED.
2. Efficiency: LEDs are highly efficient devices, and reverse biasing helps maintain their efficiency by minimizing the leakage current.
3. Control: By adjusting the reverse bias voltage, the brightness of the LED can be controlled. Higher reverse bias voltages result in lower brightness, while lower reverse bias voltages result in higher brightness.
In conclusion, reverse biasing is the preferred method of biasing in LEDs. It protects the LED from excessive current, maintains efficiency, and allows for control over the brightness. By applying a reverse bias voltage, the LED remains in an "off" state, with no visible light emitted.
External Interrupts and Decrementer-Caused Exceptions
Introduction: In computer systems, exceptions are events that occur during the execution of a program and disrupt the normal flow of instructions. These exceptions can be classified into various categories based on their causes and effects. Two types of exceptions that are relevant to external interrupts and decrementer-caused exceptions are synchronous precise and asynchronous precise exceptions.
Synchronous Precise Exceptions: Synchronous precise exceptions occur when an instruction is executed and an exception condition is detected immediately after the instruction completes. They are called synchronous because they are directly caused by the program execution and precise because the point of interruption is known precisely. These exceptions are synchronous with the instruction stream and can be handled by the instruction itself or by the exception handler routine.
External Interrupts: External interrupts are events that occur outside the normal execution flow of a program. They are typically caused by external devices or signals, such as keyboard input, timer interrupts, or I/O interrupts. When an external interrupt occurs, the processor suspends the current execution and transfers control to the interrupt handler routine. These interrupts are asynchronous because they can occur at any time during program execution. However, they are precise because the processor can determine the exact point of interruption and resume execution from the interrupted instruction.
Decrementer-Caused Exceptions: In some computer architectures, a decrementer is a special register that is used to generate periodic timer interrupts. The decrementer is decremented at a fixed rate, and when it reaches zero, a decrementer-caused exception is triggered. This type of exception is also asynchronous because it can occur at any time, but it is precise because the processor knows the exact point of interruption.
Answer: In the context of the given question, the correct exception type used in external interrupts and decrementer-caused exceptions is asynchronous precise.
External interrupts and decrementer-caused exceptions are both asynchronous because they can occur at any time during program execution. However, they are considered precise exceptions because the processor knows the exact point of interruption and can resume execution from the interrupted instruction.
Therefore, option 'B' - asynchronous precise, is the correct answer for this question.
Explanation: The EEPROM is having large number of registers, so auto incrementing counter will not be applicable. So there is an alternative method which uses index value that is written to the chip, prior to accessing the data. This is called combined format and this combined format uses two data transfer. One is to write the data and the other is to read.
Explanation: The serial peripheral interface allows the full duplex synchronous communication between the master and the slave devices. MC68HC05 developed by Motorola uses SPI for interfacing the peripheral devices.
SPDR stands for Serial Peripheral Data Register. It is a register that is used to store data in the master device during serial communication. Let's understand in detail why SPDR is the correct answer.
Serial Communication: Serial communication is a method of transferring data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a single communication line. It is widely used in various devices like microcontrollers, sensors, and other peripheral devices. In serial communication, there are two devices involved - a master device and a slave device.
Master Device: The master device is responsible for initiating and controlling the communication. It sends commands or requests to the slave device and receives data from it. The master device can be a microcontroller, a computer, or any other device capable of generating and processing serial data.
Data Transmission: During data transmission, the master device sends data to the slave device. This data is usually stored in a register before it is transmitted. The choice of register depends on the specific microcontroller or device being used.
SPDR - Serial Peripheral Data Register: SPDR is a register specifically designed for serial communication in microcontrollers. It is the register where the data to be transmitted is written before it is sent. The master device writes the data to be transmitted into the SPDR register, and the hardware takes care of transmitting the data bit by bit.
Advantages of using SPDR: 1. Simplifies serial communication: Using a dedicated register like SPDR for data transmission simplifies the programming and implementation of serial communication in microcontrollers. 2. Efficient data transfer: The use of SPDR ensures efficient and reliable data transfer by handling the transmission in hardware, freeing up the microcontroller's processing power for other tasks. 3. Synchronous communication: SPDR allows synchronous communication, where data is transferred in a synchronized manner with a clock signal, ensuring accurate and synchronized data transmission.
In conclusion, the data to be transmitted in the master device is written in the SPDR register. This register simplifies the process of serial communication and ensures efficient and reliable data transfer.
The correct answer is option 'A': clock. The clock plays a crucial role in long distance communication systems. Let's explore the reasons why the clock can affect long distance communication.
1. Synchronization: One of the primary functions of a clock in a communication system is to ensure synchronization between the sender and receiver. In long distance communication, data is transmitted in the form of electrical signals. The sender and receiver need to be synchronized to interpret these signals correctly. If the clock at the sender and receiver are not synchronized, it can lead to errors in data transmission and reception.
2. Data Rate: The clock also determines the data rate at which information is transmitted. In long distance communication, data is typically sent in a serial manner, one bit at a time. The clock signal determines the timing of these bits. If the clock frequency is not properly set, it can result in data loss or corruption during transmission.
3. Timing Jitter: Clock signals may experience timing jitter, which refers to small variations in the clock signal's timing. Timing jitter can occur due to various factors such as noise, interference, or imperfections in the clock source. In long distance communication, timing jitter can cause signal distortion and lead to errors in data transmission.
4. Clock Recovery: In some long distance communication systems, the receiver uses the clock signal embedded in the data to recover the original clock signal. This process is known as clock recovery. If the clock signal is distorted or inconsistent, the receiver may have difficulty recovering the clock, leading to errors in data reception.
5. Bit Synchronization: In addition to clock synchronization, long distance communication systems also require bit synchronization. Bit synchronization ensures that the receiver can accurately identify the start and end of each bit. The clock signal is used to determine the boundaries of each bit. If the clock signal is unstable or inconsistent, it can result in errors in bit synchronization.
In conclusion, the clock is a critical component in long distance communication systems. It ensures synchronization between the sender and receiver, determines the data rate, helps recover the clock signal, and facilitates bit synchronization. Therefore, any issues with the clock can significantly affect the performance and reliability of long distance communication.
Hardware handshaking is a communication protocol used to control the flow of data between two devices. It ensures that the sender and receiver are ready to send and receive data before any data transmission takes place. RS232 is a standard communication protocol used for serial communication between devices. It can provide hardware handshaking, which means that it has the capability to control the flow of data using dedicated hardware signals.
RS232 is a serial communication protocol that defines the electrical and physical characteristics of the interface. It is widely used for communication between computers and peripheral devices such as modems, printers, and serial ports. RS232 uses a standard set of signals to control the flow of data between the sender and receiver.
Hardware handshaking in RS232 involves the use of dedicated hardware signals to control the flow of data. These signals include:
1. **RTS (Request To Send):** This signal is used by the sender to indicate that it is ready to send data. 2. **CTS (Clear To Send):** This signal is used by the receiver to indicate that it is ready to receive data. 3. **DSR (Data Set Ready):** This signal is used by the receiver to indicate that it is powered on and ready to receive data. 4. **DTR (Data Terminal Ready):** This signal is used by the sender to indicate that it is powered on and ready to send data.
**How RS232 Provides Hardware Handshaking:**
RS232 provides hardware handshaking by using these dedicated signals to control the flow of data. When the sender wants to send data, it raises the RTS signal to indicate its readiness. The receiver monitors the RTS signal and responds by raising the CTS signal to indicate its readiness to receive data. This ensures that the sender and receiver are synchronized and ready for data transmission.
Similarly, the receiver can also indicate its readiness by raising the DSR signal, and the sender can monitor this signal to ensure that the receiver is powered on and ready. The sender can also indicate its readiness to send data by raising the DTR signal, and the receiver can monitor this signal to ensure that the sender is powered on and ready.
By using these dedicated hardware signals, RS232 provides a reliable and efficient way to control the flow of data between devices, ensuring that data transmission only occurs when both the sender and receiver are ready. Therefore, RS232 is capable of providing hardware handshaking.
Tri-state Tri-state is a term used in digital electronics to describe a third state of a signal line, in addition to the two traditional binary states (0 and 1). The tri-state state is also known as high impedance or open state.
Output Port An output port is a hardware interface on a computer or electronic device that is used to send data to an external device or another computer system. It allows the computer to communicate with external devices or systems by transmitting data signals.
Input Port An input port is a hardware interface on a computer or electronic device that is used to receive data from an external device or another computer system. It allows the computer to accept data signals from external sources.
Parallel Port A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers that enables data to be transferred in parallel. It is typically used to connect devices such as printers and scanners to the computer. Parallel ports can transfer multiple bits of data simultaneously, making them faster than serial ports.
Output-Input Port An output-input port is not a commonly used term in digital electronics. It may refer to a port that can function as both an input and output port, allowing data to be both sent and received.
Explanation The correct answer is option 'A', output port. Tri-state is often associated with output ports because they can be configured to have a third state, which is high impedance or open. In this state, the output port does not drive any voltage or current onto the connected circuit, effectively disconnecting itself from the external devices. This allows multiple devices to share the same bus or line without interfering with each other.
By using tri-state output ports, devices can be connected together in a bus architecture, where each device can drive the bus with its output port when necessary, and then tri-state the bus when it is not actively transmitting data. This helps to prevent conflicts or contention on the bus.
Tri-state output ports are commonly used in scenarios where multiple devices need to share a common communication line or bus, such as in microcontrollers, memory chips, and digital buses like I2C or SPI.
In summary, the tri-state is a third state of a signal line, and it is often associated with output ports in digital electronics. Output ports can be configured to have a high impedance state, which allows multiple devices to share a common bus or line without interference.
Explanation: The interrupts are the most important function of the embedded system and are responsible for many problems while debugging the system. The time taken to respond to an interrupt is called the interrupt latency.
Asynchronous data transmission is a method of transmitting data where the sender and receiver are not synchronized by a clock signal. In this type of transmission, each character is preceded by a start bit and followed by one or more stop bits to indicate the beginning and end of the data frame.
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) SPI is a synchronous serial communication protocol commonly used for short-distance communication between microcontrollers, sensors, and other peripheral devices. It uses a master-slave architecture, where the master device controls the communication and the slave devices respond accordingly. SPI is a synchronous transmission method, where data is transmitted in a continuous stream of bits and is not asynchronous.
RS232 (Recommended Standard 232) RS232 is a serial communication standard that defines the electrical and mechanical characteristics of a serial communication interface. It is commonly used for serial communication between computers and peripheral devices such as modems, printers, and mice. RS232 uses a synchronous transmission method, where data is transmitted in a continuous stream of bits and is not asynchronous.
Parallel Port A parallel port is a communication interface that allows multiple bits of data to be transmitted simultaneously. It is commonly used for connecting printers and other devices to a computer. Parallel port communication is typically synchronous, where data is transmitted in parallel and is not asynchronous.
I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) I2C is a serial communication protocol used for communication between integrated circuits. It is commonly used for low-speed communication between microcontrollers, sensors, and other peripheral devices. I2C uses a synchronous transmission method, where data is transmitted in a continuous stream of bits and is not asynchronous.
Conclusion Out of the given options, only RS232 supports asynchronous data transmission. SPI, parallel port, and I2C all use synchronous transmission methods where data is transmitted in a continuous stream of bits. Asynchronous data transmission is commonly used in scenarios where the sender and receiver are not synchronized by a clock signal and require start and stop bits to indicate the beginning and end of data frames.
Connecting peripherals to a processor is a crucial process in computer systems. It allows the processor to communicate with and control various input and output devices such as keyboards, mice, printers, and storage devices. There are several methods for connecting peripherals to the processor, but the most common one is through external interrupts.
External Interrupts: External interrupts are signals generated by the peripherals to gain the attention of the processor. When a peripheral needs to communicate with the processor, it sends an interrupt signal to the processor. This signal interrupts the normal execution of the processor and directs it to a specific interrupt handling routine. The interrupt handling routine is a piece of code that is responsible for processing the request from the peripheral.
Advantages of External Interrupts: - Scalability: External interrupts provide a scalable solution as multiple peripherals can share the same interrupt line. Each peripheral is assigned a unique interrupt number, allowing the processor to identify the source of the interrupt and execute the corresponding interrupt handling routine. - Real-time response: External interrupts enable real-time response as the processor can immediately respond to the interrupt request from the peripheral. This is particularly important for time-sensitive applications where delay can result in data loss or system failure. - Efficient resource utilization: External interrupts help in efficient resource utilization as the processor does not need to constantly poll the peripherals for data. Instead, it can focus on other tasks and only respond when an interrupt occurs.
Other Methods: While external interrupts are the most common method, there are other ways to connect peripherals to the processor as well: - Internal interrupts: Internal interrupts are generated within the processor itself and are used to handle internal events or exceptions. These interrupts are not related to the peripherals. - Software: Some peripherals may require software-based communication protocols. In such cases, the processor communicates with the peripheral using specific software instructions or protocols. - Exceptions: Exceptions are abnormal events or conditions that occur during the program's execution. They can be triggered by various factors such as arithmetic errors, memory access violations, or divide-by-zero errors. Exceptions are not specifically related to peripheral communication but can interrupt the normal execution flow of the processor.
In conclusion, while there are multiple methods for connecting peripherals to the processor, the most common and efficient method is through external interrupts. External interrupts allow peripherals to send interrupt signals to the processor, enabling real-time response and efficient resource utilization.
Time-driven systems are computer systems that perform tasks or operations based on a specific schedule or timing mechanism. These systems are commonly used in real-time applications, such as operating systems, control systems, and data acquisition systems. To create time-driven systems, various components and techniques can be utilized. Among the options given, interrupts are the most suitable choice.
Interrupts Interrupts are hardware or software signals that occur during the execution of a program and cause the CPU to temporarily halt its current task and switch to a different task or subroutine. They can be triggered by various events, such as a hardware input, a timer reaching a specific value, or an error condition.
Interrupts are essential for creating time-driven systems because they allow the system to respond promptly to time-sensitive events or tasks. By using interrupts, the system can interrupt its current operations and immediately execute a specific routine or task at a predefined time or interval. This ensures that critical tasks are performed accurately and in a timely manner.
Advantages of Using Interrupts - Real-time responsiveness: Interrupts enable the system to respond quickly to time-critical events, ensuring that tasks are executed within specific time constraints. - Efficient resource utilization: By utilizing interrupts, the system can efficiently allocate its resources, such as CPU time, memory, and I/O devices, to different tasks without wasting any processing power or delaying critical operations. - Event-driven architecture: Interrupts allow the system to be event-driven, where tasks are triggered by specific events rather than being executed sequentially. This enables the system to handle multiple tasks simultaneously and in parallel. - Predictable timing: With interrupts, the system can schedule and execute tasks at precise intervals, ensuring predictable timing and synchronization between different components or subsystems.
Conclusion In summary, interrupts are a crucial component for creating time-driven systems. They allow the system to promptly respond to time-sensitive events or tasks, ensuring real-time responsiveness, efficient resource utilization, event-driven architecture, and predictable timing. Therefore, interrupts are the correct option among the given choices to create time-driven systems.
Explanation: The interrupt on the terminal count is known as mode 0 for the 8253. An initial value is loaded into the count register and then starts to count down at the frequency which is determined by the clock input. When the count reaches zero, an interrupt is generated.
Explanation: The MC68000, Intel 80×86 and most of the b-bit controllers are based on the stack-based processors whereas PowerPC, DEC alpha, and ARM are RISC families which have a special internal register for holding the data.
Explanation: The darlington pair of transistors can provide high gain than a single transistor. This is one of the method used to avoid voltage mismatches that the system produces. By using high gain transistors the voltage mismatches can be reduced upto a limit.
Explanation: The quantisation step is same throughout the dynamic range in the linear codec and thus any increase in the analogue value increases the digital value, that is, the overall performance is linear.
Explanation: The logarithmic codec is frequently used in the telecommunication system which have a limited bandwidth of 300 to 3100 Hz. this can provide an 8-bit sample at 8 KHz,which are used in the telephones. The commonly used are A-law and µ-law.
Explanation: The embedded systems have a timing component called timer or counter which helps in the timing reference for control sequence, provides system tick for the operating system and also helps in the generation of waveforms for the serial port baud rate generation.
Explanation: The arbitration is used to provide priority for a multiple access. This uses a priority scheme which may offers fair priority to the one channel, or a high priority to the other channel and so on. Such condition is otherwise known as round-robin condition in which the priority is equally divided.
Explanation: In the 2D model of the DMA controller, in addition to the address stride there is a count register which can be split into two, in which one register is used to specify the count for the block and the second register is used to define the total number of blocks or the bytes to be transferred.
Explanation: The SCI timer is used to generate the two instruction fast interrupt which increments the register R1 that acts as a simple counter which times the period between the events. The events itself generates an IRQA interrupt, that forces the service routine.
Explanation: In order to use the software interrupt more effectively, the additional data are used to specify the type of the request and data parameters are passed to the specific ISR. This additional data are offered by certain registers. These registers are accessible by the ISR and it can also be used to pass the status information back to the calling software.
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