CLAT Exam  >  CLAT Questions  >   The law of torts has been evolving throughou... Start Learning for Free
The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.
INEVITABLE ACCIDENT
Inevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.
An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.
In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.
The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.
To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.
Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.
  • a)
    X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.
  • b)
    X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.
  • c)
    X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.
  • d)
    X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
Most Upvoted Answer
The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There ar...
Correct Answer is (d)
A permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics was required to carry on the production or manufacture of narcotic and psychotropic substances. X had applied for the same but had not been granted the license yet. Hence his act can be termed as unlawful. Therefore X cannot plead the defence of accident.
Incorrect Answers
None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.
Explore Courses for CLAT exam

Similar CLAT Doubts

Passage - 1The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill. An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature. The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses. The plea of an inevitable accident has lost its practicality in todays day and age, as it has lost its utility since the principle of absolute liability, applies even in the absence of defendants negligence and with the growth in the dimension of science the number of accidents which were considered to be inevitable is fastly diminishing.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and cant be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q.X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.

The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.The 2019 Act has brought in some major changes and provides for more protection to the consumers in pari materia to the earlier 1986 Act which can be seen from the comprehensive definition provided for the terms consumer and unfair trade practice. The 2019 Act expands the scope of the definition of consumer so as to include the consumers involved in online transactions and it now squarely covers the e-commerce businesses within its ambit. The 2019 Act has also widened the definition of unfair trade practices as compared to the 1986 Act which now includes within its ambit online misleading advertisements; the practice of not issuing bill/memo for the goods and services; failing to take back defective goods or deactivate defective services and refund the amount within the stipulated time mentioned in the bill or memo or within 30 days in the absence of such stipulation; and disclosing personal information of a consumer unless such disclosure is in accordance with law.The 2019 Act has also introduced the concept of unfair contract which includes those contracts which favour the manufacturers or service providers and are against the interest of the consumers such as contracts requiring manifestly excessive security deposits to be given by a consumer for the performance of contractual obligations; imposing any penalty on the consumer for a breach of the contract, which is wholly disproportionate to the loss occurred due to such breach to the other party to the contract. Such unfair consumer contracts are now covered under the 2019 Act and a complaint in this regard can now be filed by a consumer.Another major introduction in the 2019 Act is the concept of product liability which covers within its ambit the product manufacturer, product service provider and product seller, for any claim for compensation. The term product liability is defined by the 2019 Act as the responsibility of a product manufacturer or product seller, of any product or service, related to the product to compensate for any harm caused to a consumer by such defective product manufactured or sold or by deficiency in services relating to the product. Also, the product seller has now been defined to include a person who is involved in placing the product for a commercial purpose and as such would include e-commerce platforms as well. Therefore, the ground commonly taken by e-commerce websites that they merely act as platforms or aggregators will now not be tenable before the court anymore. There are increased liability risks for manufacturers as compared to product service providers and product sellers, considering that under the 2019 Act, manufacturers will be liable in product liability action even where they successfully prove that they were not negligent or fraudulent in making the express warranty of a product. However, certain exceptions have been provided under the 2019 Act from liability claims, such as, that the product seller will not be liable where the product has been misused, altered or modified.Q.A milk company, selling Parag milk packets of 500 ml, actually delivers only 400 ml through its retailer. The buyer wants compensation. Decide.

Since the late 1970’s, faced with severe loss of market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in the US have been trying to improve productivity—and therefore enhance their international competitiveness—through cost-cutting programs. (Cost-cutting here is defined as raising labor output while holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from 1978 through 1982, productivity—the value of goods manufactured divided by the amount of labor—did not improve; and while the results were better in the business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25 percent lower than productivity improvements during earlier, post-1945 upturns. ##At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufacturers worked to implement cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive edge.When I recently visited 25 companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a “40, 40, 20” rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based competitive advantage derives from long-term changes in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number, size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major changes in equipment and process technology. The final 20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-cutting. This does not mean cost-cutting should not be tried. Approaches like simplifying jobs and retraining employees to work smarter, not harder—do produce results. But the tools quickly reach the limits of what they can contribute.Cost-cutting approach hinders innovation and discourages creative people. An industry can easily become prisoner of its own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its ability to develop new products. Managers under pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation because they know that more fundamental changes in processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on which they are measured. Production managers have always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and maximizing output. This dimension of performance has created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most factories that has kept away creative managers. Successful companies have overcome this problem by developing and implementing a strategy that focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equipment and process technology. In one company a manufacturing strategy that allowed different areas of the factory to specialize in different markets replaced the conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years the company regained its competitive advantage. Together with such strategies, successful companies are also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of managing.Q. As inferred from the first paragraph, the manufacturers expected that the measures they implemented would

Directions: Read the passage and answer the question that follows.The Pesticide Management Bill, 2020, is a long-overdue law on this critical segment of agriculture, in the making since 2008, to replace the obsolete Insecticides Act, 1968. Globally, India is the fourth-largest producer of pesticides. As a first step, the proposed legislation covers all classes of pesticides, not just insecticides as the current law does.Taking into account advances in modern pest management science and the ill effects of synthetic pesticides, the Pesticide Management Bill should bring India's pesticide sector in line with global norms, to some of which India has signed up. The food safety law already has limits on pesticide residue. It would be desirable for the government to subject the Bill to public comment.The present law addresses manufacturing, sale, import, transport, use, and distribution of insecticides. The Bill will cover the life cycle of pesticides from manufacture to disposal and will include regulation of export, packaging, labelling, pricing, storage, and advertisement. Penalties on manufacturers for non-compliance with rules and regulations would be stiffer.An important focus of the Bill is on labelling-manufacturers will be required by law to specify clear and specific information on material and chemical composition, and dosage of use. The labels must carry this information in the local language to ensure that farmers are properly informed. This is critical. There is a tendency of overuse of pesticides by farmers, often driven by ignorance.The Bill should also have provision for technical assistance to farmers on pesticide use from agriculture extension services centers. This is vital for farm exports. Proposals for a pool for compensating farmers might sound good but would diffuse culpability, which must be rigorously established before seeking compensation. Empowering states to set locally relevant norms would be a good idea.While the Bill is a major step forward, it needs to go beyond regulating chemical pesticides. It must take into account non-synthetic pesticides, including research and development.Q. If a manufacturer is supplying pesticides to the farmers at a village in Tamil Nadu. What is the most important thing for the manufacturer to ensure according to the proposed Pesticide Management Bill, 2020?

Directions: Read the passage and answer the question that follows.The Pesticide Management Bill, 2020, is a long-overdue law on this critical segment of agriculture, in the making since 2008, to replace the obsolete Insecticides Act, 1968. Globally, India is the fourth-largest producer of pesticides. As a first step, the proposed legislation covers all classes of pesticides, not just insecticides as the current law does.Taking into account advances in modern pest management science and the ill effects of synthetic pesticides, the Pesticide Management Bill should bring India's pesticide sector in line with global norms, to some of which India has signed up. The food safety law already has limits on pesticide residue. It would be desirable for the government to subject the Bill to public comment.The present law addresses manufacturing, sale, import, transport, use, and distribution of insecticides. The Bill will cover the life cycle of pesticides from manufacture to disposal and will include regulation of export, packaging, labelling, pricing, storage, and advertisement. Penalties on manufacturers for non-compliance with rules and regulations would be stiffer.An important focus of the Bill is on labelling-manufacturers will be required by law to specify clear and specific information on material and chemical composition, and dosage of use. The labels must carry this information in the local language to ensure that farmers are properly informed. This is critical. There is a tendency of overuse of pesticides by farmers, often driven by ignorance.The Bill should also have provision for technical assistance to farmers on pesticide use from agriculture extension services centers. This is vital for farm exports. Proposals for a pool for compensating farmers might sound good but would diffuse culpability, which must be rigorously established before seeking compensation. Empowering states to set locally relevant norms would be a good idea.While the Bill is a major step forward, it needs to go beyond regulating chemical pesticides. It must take into account non-synthetic pesticides, including research and development.Q. Which one of the following is not covered by the proposed Pesticide Management Bill, 2020?

The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
Question Description
The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? for CLAT 2024 is part of CLAT preparation. The Question and answers have been prepared according to the CLAT exam syllabus. Information about The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? covers all topics & solutions for CLAT 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?.
Solutions for The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? in English & in Hindi are available as part of our courses for CLAT. Download more important topics, notes, lectures and mock test series for CLAT Exam by signing up for free.
Here you can find the meaning of The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? defined & explained in the simplest way possible. Besides giving the explanation of The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?, a detailed solution for The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? has been provided alongside types of The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? theory, EduRev gives you an ample number of questions to practice The law of torts has been evolving throughout its existence. There are certain principles which are used to counter claims for compensation. These counterclaims or defences are used to evict those citizens from tortious liability who have been unfairly been implicated with wrong claims imposed on them. These defences have been formulated from time to time to keep up with the basis of imposition of tortious liability on a person.INEVITABLE ACCIDENTInevitable Accidents are, as evident from the name, events which could not have been prevented by the parties through the exercise of ordinary care, caution, and skill.An inevitable accident is one which could not be possibly prevented by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and skill and hence it does not apply to anything which either of the parties might have avoided. Sir Frederick Pollock defined an inevitable accident as an accident which is not avoidable by any precautions, a reasonable man could have expected to take.In the past cases, the defence of inevitable accident used to be very relevant in actions for trespass when the older rule was that even an innocent trespass was actionable unless the defendant could prove that the accident was caused due to it being inevitable in nature.The term "inevitable accident" is used in instances where the accidents occur by chance and in the absence of human error. Both of these are similar in terms of negligence, if it is proved by the plaintiff that there was negligence on the part of the defendant then the defendant will not be able to escape liability by using these defenses.To sum it all up, an inevitable accident is an event which happens not only without the concurrence of the will of a man but in spite of all the efforts that a man may put on his part to prevent it from happening i.e. an accident which is physically unavoidable and can't be prevented by human skill or foresight.Q. X was carrying on the business of production of narcotic and psychotropic substances for which one needed to obtain a permit license from Central Bureau of Narcotics. X had applied for the license to run such a business which was awaited. The process involved use of large boilers to heat water. The boilers were imported from abroad and were best available anywhere in the world. X ensured that the boilers were used according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Due to some latent fault in manufacturing, one of the boilers burst, causing injuries to several workers. On being charged, X pleaded the defence of "accident". Decide.a)X can plead the defence of accident as the accident was caused by a latent manufacturing defect.b)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he was involved in an unlawful act.c)X can plead the defence of accident as he took necessary precaution and care while operating the boilers.d)X cannot plead the defence of accident as he must have had knowledge that the operation was inherently dangerous.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer? tests, examples and also practice CLAT tests.
Explore Courses for CLAT exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev