एनसीईआरटी पाठ्यपुस्तक: हमारी बदलती पृथ्वी UPSC Notes | EduRev

भूगोल (Geography) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : एनसीईआरटी पाठ्यपुस्तक: हमारी बदलती पृथ्वी UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


LFkyeaMy vusd IysVksa esa foHkkftr gS] ftUgsa LFkyeaMyh; IysV dgrs gSaA
vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ;s IysV ges'kk /heh xfr ls pkjksa rjiQ
?kwerh jgrh gSa&izR;sd o"kZ osQoy oqQN feyhehVj osQ yxHkxA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kys gq, eSXek esa gksus okyh xfr osQ dkj.k ,slk gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kyk gqvk eSXek ,d o`Ùkh; :i esa ?kwerk jgrk gS] tSlk fd fØ;kdyki esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
IysV dh bl xfr osQ dkj.k i`Foh dh lrg ij ifjorZu gksrk gSA i`Foh
dh xfr dks mu cyksa osQ vk/kj ij foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ dkj.k
;s xfr;k¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA tks cy Ik`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx eas ?kfVr gksrs gSa
mUgsa vartZfur cy (,aMkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs gSa ,oa tks cy Ik`Foh dh
lrg Ikj mRiUu gksrs gSa mUgsa cfgtZfud cy (,Dlkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs
gSa (fp=k 3-1)A vartZfur cy dHkh vkdfLed xfr mRiUu djrs gaS] rks
dHkh /heh xfrA Hkwdai ,oa Tokykeq[kh tSlh vkdfLed xfr osQ dkj.k
i`Foh dh lrg ij vR;f/d gkfu gksrh gSA
3 3
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh
,d jaxhu dkx”k dh NksVh&lh
xksyh yhft, vkSj bls ty osQ
vk/s Hkjs
chdj esa j[k
nhft,A chdj
dks frikbZ ij
j[kdj xeZ
djsaA ty xeZ gksus ij vki
ns[ksaxs fd xeZ ty dh ijrksa osQ
lkFk dkx”k dh xksyh Hkh Åij
mBrh gS vkSj
BaMs ikuh dh
ijrksa osQ lkFk
;g xksyh
uhps cSBrh
gSA i`Foh osQ vanj fLFkr fi?kyk
gqvk eSXek Hkh blh izdkj xfr
djrk gSA
LFkyeaMyh; IysV %
Hkw&iiZVh esa vusd cM+h ,oa oqQN
NksVh dBksj] vleku&vkdkj dh
IysVsa gksrh gSa] ftu ij egk}hi
,oa egklkxj dh lrgsa fVdh gSaA
fp=k 3-1 % LFky:iksa dk fodkl
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vartZfur cy cfgtZfur cy
vkdfLed cy iVy fo:i.k cy vijnu vkSj fu{ksi.k
ioZr fuekZ.kdkjh cy
HkwoaQi
Tokykeq[kh
HkwL[kyu
unh@cgrk ty
iou
leqnzh rjax
fgeun
Page 2


LFkyeaMy vusd IysVksa esa foHkkftr gS] ftUgsa LFkyeaMyh; IysV dgrs gSaA
vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ;s IysV ges'kk /heh xfr ls pkjksa rjiQ
?kwerh jgrh gSa&izR;sd o"kZ osQoy oqQN feyhehVj osQ yxHkxA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kys gq, eSXek esa gksus okyh xfr osQ dkj.k ,slk gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kyk gqvk eSXek ,d o`Ùkh; :i esa ?kwerk jgrk gS] tSlk fd fØ;kdyki esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
IysV dh bl xfr osQ dkj.k i`Foh dh lrg ij ifjorZu gksrk gSA i`Foh
dh xfr dks mu cyksa osQ vk/kj ij foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ dkj.k
;s xfr;k¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA tks cy Ik`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx eas ?kfVr gksrs gSa
mUgsa vartZfur cy (,aMkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs gSa ,oa tks cy Ik`Foh dh
lrg Ikj mRiUu gksrs gSa mUgsa cfgtZfud cy (,Dlkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs
gSa (fp=k 3-1)A vartZfur cy dHkh vkdfLed xfr mRiUu djrs gaS] rks
dHkh /heh xfrA Hkwdai ,oa Tokykeq[kh tSlh vkdfLed xfr osQ dkj.k
i`Foh dh lrg ij vR;f/d gkfu gksrh gSA
3 3
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh
,d jaxhu dkx”k dh NksVh&lh
xksyh yhft, vkSj bls ty osQ
vk/s Hkjs
chdj esa j[k
nhft,A chdj
dks frikbZ ij
j[kdj xeZ
djsaA ty xeZ gksus ij vki
ns[ksaxs fd xeZ ty dh ijrksa osQ
lkFk dkx”k dh xksyh Hkh Åij
mBrh gS vkSj
BaMs ikuh dh
ijrksa osQ lkFk
;g xksyh
uhps cSBrh
gSA i`Foh osQ vanj fLFkr fi?kyk
gqvk eSXek Hkh blh izdkj xfr
djrk gSA
LFkyeaMyh; IysV %
Hkw&iiZVh esa vusd cM+h ,oa oqQN
NksVh dBksj] vleku&vkdkj dh
IysVsa gksrh gSa] ftu ij egk}hi
,oa egklkxj dh lrgsa fVdh gSaA
fp=k 3-1 % LFky:iksa dk fodkl
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vartZfur cy cfgtZfur cy
vkdfLed cy iVy fo:i.k cy vijnu vkSj fu{ksi.k
ioZr fuekZ.kdkjh cy
HkwoaQi
Tokykeq[kh
HkwL[kyu
unh@cgrk ty
iou
leqnzh rjax
fgeun
Lava
tube
xSlsa o jk[k
ozsQVj
fudkl (osaV)
ykok
eSXek dks"B
eSaVy
iiZVh
Tokykeq[kh Hkw&iiZVh ij [kqyk ,d ,slk fNnz gksrk gS]
ftlls fi?kys gq, inkFkZ vpkud fudyrs gSa (fp=k 3-2)A
blh izdkj] LFkyeaMyh; IysVksa osQ xfr djus ij i`Foh dh lrg ij daiu
gksrk gSA ;g daiu i`Foh osQ pkjksa vksj xfr dj ldrk gSA bl daiu dks Hkwdai
dgrs gaS (fp=k 3-3)A Hkw&iiZVh osQ uhps og LFkku tgk¡ oaQiu vkjaHk gksrk gS]
mn~xe osaQnz dgykrk gSA mn~xe osaQnz osQ Hkwlrg ij mlosQ fudVre LFkku dks
vfèkosaQnz dgrs gSaA vf/osaQnz ls daiu ckgj dh vksj rjaxksa osQ :i esa xeu
djrh gSaA vf/osaQnz osQ fudVre Hkkx esa lokZf/d gkfu gksrh gS ,oa vf/osaQnz
ls nwjh c<+us osQ lkFk Hkwdai dh rhozrk /hjs&/hjs de gksrh tkrh gSA
,d crZu ysaA mls ty ls
Hkjdj <Ddu ls can dj nsa
rFkk ty xeZ djus osQ fy,
j[k nsaA vc oqQN eVj] pEep
vkSj eksrh <Ddu osQ mQij j[k
nsaA vki D;k ns[krs gSa\ tSls gh
ty esa mcky vkrk gS] <Ddu
Hkh fgyus yxrk gSA tks oLrq,¡
vkius <Ddu osQ Åij j[kh gSa
muesa oaQiu gksus yxrk gSA nkus
uhps tkrs gS vkSj pEep osQ
oaQiu ls èofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
blh Hkk¡fr tc HkwoaQi vkrs gSa]
rks i`Foh esa oaQiu mRiUu gksus
yxrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxs rhu izdkj dh
gksrh gSaµ
• ih rjaxsa vFkok vuqnSè;Z rjaxsa
• ,l rjaxsa vFkok vuqizLFk rjaxsa
• ,y rjaxsa vFkok i`"Bh; rjaxsa
bu rjaxksa osQ xq.k/eZ fo'odks'k
ls Kkr djus dk iz;kl
dhft,A
fp=k 3-2 % ,d Tokykeq[kh
fp=k 3-3 % ,d HkwoaQi dh mRifÙk
tsfud
(mRifÙk)
,aMks
(vUr%)
,Dlks
(cká)
,aMkstsfud
,Dlkstsfud
+
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13
Page 3


LFkyeaMy vusd IysVksa esa foHkkftr gS] ftUgsa LFkyeaMyh; IysV dgrs gSaA
vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ;s IysV ges'kk /heh xfr ls pkjksa rjiQ
?kwerh jgrh gSa&izR;sd o"kZ osQoy oqQN feyhehVj osQ yxHkxA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kys gq, eSXek esa gksus okyh xfr osQ dkj.k ,slk gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kyk gqvk eSXek ,d o`Ùkh; :i esa ?kwerk jgrk gS] tSlk fd fØ;kdyki esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
IysV dh bl xfr osQ dkj.k i`Foh dh lrg ij ifjorZu gksrk gSA i`Foh
dh xfr dks mu cyksa osQ vk/kj ij foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ dkj.k
;s xfr;k¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA tks cy Ik`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx eas ?kfVr gksrs gSa
mUgsa vartZfur cy (,aMkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs gSa ,oa tks cy Ik`Foh dh
lrg Ikj mRiUu gksrs gSa mUgsa cfgtZfud cy (,Dlkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs
gSa (fp=k 3-1)A vartZfur cy dHkh vkdfLed xfr mRiUu djrs gaS] rks
dHkh /heh xfrA Hkwdai ,oa Tokykeq[kh tSlh vkdfLed xfr osQ dkj.k
i`Foh dh lrg ij vR;f/d gkfu gksrh gSA
3 3
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh
,d jaxhu dkx”k dh NksVh&lh
xksyh yhft, vkSj bls ty osQ
vk/s Hkjs
chdj esa j[k
nhft,A chdj
dks frikbZ ij
j[kdj xeZ
djsaA ty xeZ gksus ij vki
ns[ksaxs fd xeZ ty dh ijrksa osQ
lkFk dkx”k dh xksyh Hkh Åij
mBrh gS vkSj
BaMs ikuh dh
ijrksa osQ lkFk
;g xksyh
uhps cSBrh
gSA i`Foh osQ vanj fLFkr fi?kyk
gqvk eSXek Hkh blh izdkj xfr
djrk gSA
LFkyeaMyh; IysV %
Hkw&iiZVh esa vusd cM+h ,oa oqQN
NksVh dBksj] vleku&vkdkj dh
IysVsa gksrh gSa] ftu ij egk}hi
,oa egklkxj dh lrgsa fVdh gSaA
fp=k 3-1 % LFky:iksa dk fodkl
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vartZfur cy cfgtZfur cy
vkdfLed cy iVy fo:i.k cy vijnu vkSj fu{ksi.k
ioZr fuekZ.kdkjh cy
HkwoaQi
Tokykeq[kh
HkwL[kyu
unh@cgrk ty
iou
leqnzh rjax
fgeun
Lava
tube
xSlsa o jk[k
ozsQVj
fudkl (osaV)
ykok
eSXek dks"B
eSaVy
iiZVh
Tokykeq[kh Hkw&iiZVh ij [kqyk ,d ,slk fNnz gksrk gS]
ftlls fi?kys gq, inkFkZ vpkud fudyrs gSa (fp=k 3-2)A
blh izdkj] LFkyeaMyh; IysVksa osQ xfr djus ij i`Foh dh lrg ij daiu
gksrk gSA ;g daiu i`Foh osQ pkjksa vksj xfr dj ldrk gSA bl daiu dks Hkwdai
dgrs gaS (fp=k 3-3)A Hkw&iiZVh osQ uhps og LFkku tgk¡ oaQiu vkjaHk gksrk gS]
mn~xe osaQnz dgykrk gSA mn~xe osaQnz osQ Hkwlrg ij mlosQ fudVre LFkku dks
vfèkosaQnz dgrs gSaA vf/osaQnz ls daiu ckgj dh vksj rjaxksa osQ :i esa xeu
djrh gSaA vf/osaQnz osQ fudVre Hkkx esa lokZf/d gkfu gksrh gS ,oa vf/osaQnz
ls nwjh c<+us osQ lkFk Hkwdai dh rhozrk /hjs&/hjs de gksrh tkrh gSA
,d crZu ysaA mls ty ls
Hkjdj <Ddu ls can dj nsa
rFkk ty xeZ djus osQ fy,
j[k nsaA vc oqQN eVj] pEep
vkSj eksrh <Ddu osQ mQij j[k
nsaA vki D;k ns[krs gSa\ tSls gh
ty esa mcky vkrk gS] <Ddu
Hkh fgyus yxrk gSA tks oLrq,¡
vkius <Ddu osQ Åij j[kh gSa
muesa oaQiu gksus yxrk gSA nkus
uhps tkrs gS vkSj pEep osQ
oaQiu ls èofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
blh Hkk¡fr tc HkwoaQi vkrs gSa]
rks i`Foh esa oaQiu mRiUu gksus
yxrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxs rhu izdkj dh
gksrh gSaµ
• ih rjaxsa vFkok vuqnSè;Z rjaxsa
• ,l rjaxsa vFkok vuqizLFk rjaxsa
• ,y rjaxsa vFkok i`"Bh; rjaxsa
bu rjaxksa osQ xq.k/eZ fo'odks'k
ls Kkr djus dk iz;kl
dhft,A
fp=k 3-2 % ,d Tokykeq[kh
fp=k 3-3 % ,d HkwoaQi dh mRifÙk
tsfud
(mRifÙk)
,aMks
(vUr%)
,Dlks
(cká)
,aMkstsfud
,Dlkstsfud
+
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 14 gekjk i;kZoj.k
fØ;kdyki
HkwoaQiekih
;|fi] Hkwdai dh Hkfo";ok.kh laHko ugha] ysfdu ;fn ge igys ls rS;kj
gksa] rks blosQ izHkko dks fuf'pr :i ls de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
LFkkuh; yksx oqQN lkekU; rjhdksa ls Hkwdai dh laHkkouk dk vuqeku yxkrs
gSa] tSlsµtkuojksa osQ O;ogkj dk vè;;u] rkykc esa eNfy;ksa dh mÙkstuk] lk¡Ikksa
dk /jkry Ikj vkukA
fp=k 3-4 % Hkqt esa HkwoaQi }kjk
fouk'k
HkwoaQiµ ,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u
HkwoaQi dk ekiu ,d ;a=k ls
fd;k tkrk gS] ftls HkwoaQiekih
dgrs gSaA HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
fjDVj LosQy ij ekih tkrh gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 2-0
vFkok mlls de gksrh gS]
mldk izHkko ugha osQ cjkcj
gksrk gSA ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
5-0 gksrh gS] og oLrqvksa osQ
fxjus ls {kfr igq¡pk ldrk gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 6-0
vFkok mlls vf/d gksrh gS]
og cgqr 'kfDRk'kkyh vkSj
ftldh rhozrk 7-0 vFkok
vfèkd gksrh gS] og lokZf/d
'kfDRk'kkyh le>k tkrk gSA
Hkwdai ls cpko dh rS;kjh
Hkwdai osQ nkSjku dgk¡ vkJ; ysa µ
lqfj{kr LFkku&jlksbZ osQ dkmaVj ;k est osQ uhps] nhokj osQ van:uh dksus esaA
buls nwj jgas&vkx okys LFkku] fpeuh osQ vklikl rFkk VwV ldus okyh
f[kM+fd;ksa] niZ.k ,oa rlohj izsQe lsA
igys ls rS;kj jgsa&vius nksLrksa ,oa Ikkfjokfjd lnL;ksa osQ chp tkx:drk IkSQyk,¡
,oa vkink dk lkeuk fo'okl ls djsaA
1- Hkwdai osQ i'pkr lekpkji=kksa osQ eq[; lekpkjksa osQ :i esa fn;k
x;k ^HkwoaQi&,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u* i<+saA bl ?kVuk dks Øekuqlkj
Js.khc¼ djsaA
2- dYiuk djsa fd ;fn Ldwy le; osQ chp esa vpkud Hkwdai vk
tk,] rks vki viuh lqj{kk osQ fy, D;k djsaxs\
26 tuojh 2001 dks Hkqt 'kgj esa fjDVj LosQy
ij 6-9 dh rhozrk okyk Hkh"k.k HkwdaiA
Hkqt esa Hkwdai osQ >VosQ
Ldwy lokZf/d
izHkkfor
Ldwyksa dh bekjrsa
fxjus ls de ls de
971 Nk=kksa ,oa 31
f'k{kdksa dh ekSr dh
vk'kadk gSA
xqtjkr ljdkj us bl ladV dk lkeuk djus
osQ fy, osaQnz ls foÙkh; lgk;rk ek¡xh gSA
eq[;ea=kh dh osaQnz ls vihy
iQksu ykbusa] ty Ikkbi ykbusa]
fo|qr LVs'ku ,oa lapkj ykbusa
lHkh vojksf/r gks x;sA
Hkqt dh rckgh
Hkwdai izHkkfor {ks=k esa
vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk
jk"Vªifr us vkikrdkyhu
fLFkfr dh ?kks"k.kk dhA
'kgj esa vkx
pkjdksy ,oa v¡xhfB;ksa osQ iyVus
osQ dkj.k vusd LFkkuksa ij vkxA
Hkwdai osQ rhu fnu ckn Hkh gj O;fDr rd
Hkkstu] dacy nok,¡ vkfn u igq¡pus osQ dkj.k
gkyr fparktudA
Hkqt esa fujk'kktud jkgr
1
23
4
5
6
7
Page 4


LFkyeaMy vusd IysVksa esa foHkkftr gS] ftUgsa LFkyeaMyh; IysV dgrs gSaA
vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ;s IysV ges'kk /heh xfr ls pkjksa rjiQ
?kwerh jgrh gSa&izR;sd o"kZ osQoy oqQN feyhehVj osQ yxHkxA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kys gq, eSXek esa gksus okyh xfr osQ dkj.k ,slk gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kyk gqvk eSXek ,d o`Ùkh; :i esa ?kwerk jgrk gS] tSlk fd fØ;kdyki esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
IysV dh bl xfr osQ dkj.k i`Foh dh lrg ij ifjorZu gksrk gSA i`Foh
dh xfr dks mu cyksa osQ vk/kj ij foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ dkj.k
;s xfr;k¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA tks cy Ik`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx eas ?kfVr gksrs gSa
mUgsa vartZfur cy (,aMkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs gSa ,oa tks cy Ik`Foh dh
lrg Ikj mRiUu gksrs gSa mUgsa cfgtZfud cy (,Dlkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs
gSa (fp=k 3-1)A vartZfur cy dHkh vkdfLed xfr mRiUu djrs gaS] rks
dHkh /heh xfrA Hkwdai ,oa Tokykeq[kh tSlh vkdfLed xfr osQ dkj.k
i`Foh dh lrg ij vR;f/d gkfu gksrh gSA
3 3
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh
,d jaxhu dkx”k dh NksVh&lh
xksyh yhft, vkSj bls ty osQ
vk/s Hkjs
chdj esa j[k
nhft,A chdj
dks frikbZ ij
j[kdj xeZ
djsaA ty xeZ gksus ij vki
ns[ksaxs fd xeZ ty dh ijrksa osQ
lkFk dkx”k dh xksyh Hkh Åij
mBrh gS vkSj
BaMs ikuh dh
ijrksa osQ lkFk
;g xksyh
uhps cSBrh
gSA i`Foh osQ vanj fLFkr fi?kyk
gqvk eSXek Hkh blh izdkj xfr
djrk gSA
LFkyeaMyh; IysV %
Hkw&iiZVh esa vusd cM+h ,oa oqQN
NksVh dBksj] vleku&vkdkj dh
IysVsa gksrh gSa] ftu ij egk}hi
,oa egklkxj dh lrgsa fVdh gSaA
fp=k 3-1 % LFky:iksa dk fodkl
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vartZfur cy cfgtZfur cy
vkdfLed cy iVy fo:i.k cy vijnu vkSj fu{ksi.k
ioZr fuekZ.kdkjh cy
HkwoaQi
Tokykeq[kh
HkwL[kyu
unh@cgrk ty
iou
leqnzh rjax
fgeun
Lava
tube
xSlsa o jk[k
ozsQVj
fudkl (osaV)
ykok
eSXek dks"B
eSaVy
iiZVh
Tokykeq[kh Hkw&iiZVh ij [kqyk ,d ,slk fNnz gksrk gS]
ftlls fi?kys gq, inkFkZ vpkud fudyrs gSa (fp=k 3-2)A
blh izdkj] LFkyeaMyh; IysVksa osQ xfr djus ij i`Foh dh lrg ij daiu
gksrk gSA ;g daiu i`Foh osQ pkjksa vksj xfr dj ldrk gSA bl daiu dks Hkwdai
dgrs gaS (fp=k 3-3)A Hkw&iiZVh osQ uhps og LFkku tgk¡ oaQiu vkjaHk gksrk gS]
mn~xe osaQnz dgykrk gSA mn~xe osaQnz osQ Hkwlrg ij mlosQ fudVre LFkku dks
vfèkosaQnz dgrs gSaA vf/osaQnz ls daiu ckgj dh vksj rjaxksa osQ :i esa xeu
djrh gSaA vf/osaQnz osQ fudVre Hkkx esa lokZf/d gkfu gksrh gS ,oa vf/osaQnz
ls nwjh c<+us osQ lkFk Hkwdai dh rhozrk /hjs&/hjs de gksrh tkrh gSA
,d crZu ysaA mls ty ls
Hkjdj <Ddu ls can dj nsa
rFkk ty xeZ djus osQ fy,
j[k nsaA vc oqQN eVj] pEep
vkSj eksrh <Ddu osQ mQij j[k
nsaA vki D;k ns[krs gSa\ tSls gh
ty esa mcky vkrk gS] <Ddu
Hkh fgyus yxrk gSA tks oLrq,¡
vkius <Ddu osQ Åij j[kh gSa
muesa oaQiu gksus yxrk gSA nkus
uhps tkrs gS vkSj pEep osQ
oaQiu ls èofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
blh Hkk¡fr tc HkwoaQi vkrs gSa]
rks i`Foh esa oaQiu mRiUu gksus
yxrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxs rhu izdkj dh
gksrh gSaµ
• ih rjaxsa vFkok vuqnSè;Z rjaxsa
• ,l rjaxsa vFkok vuqizLFk rjaxsa
• ,y rjaxsa vFkok i`"Bh; rjaxsa
bu rjaxksa osQ xq.k/eZ fo'odks'k
ls Kkr djus dk iz;kl
dhft,A
fp=k 3-2 % ,d Tokykeq[kh
fp=k 3-3 % ,d HkwoaQi dh mRifÙk
tsfud
(mRifÙk)
,aMks
(vUr%)
,Dlks
(cká)
,aMkstsfud
,Dlkstsfud
+
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 14 gekjk i;kZoj.k
fØ;kdyki
HkwoaQiekih
;|fi] Hkwdai dh Hkfo";ok.kh laHko ugha] ysfdu ;fn ge igys ls rS;kj
gksa] rks blosQ izHkko dks fuf'pr :i ls de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
LFkkuh; yksx oqQN lkekU; rjhdksa ls Hkwdai dh laHkkouk dk vuqeku yxkrs
gSa] tSlsµtkuojksa osQ O;ogkj dk vè;;u] rkykc esa eNfy;ksa dh mÙkstuk] lk¡Ikksa
dk /jkry Ikj vkukA
fp=k 3-4 % Hkqt esa HkwoaQi }kjk
fouk'k
HkwoaQiµ ,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u
HkwoaQi dk ekiu ,d ;a=k ls
fd;k tkrk gS] ftls HkwoaQiekih
dgrs gSaA HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
fjDVj LosQy ij ekih tkrh gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 2-0
vFkok mlls de gksrh gS]
mldk izHkko ugha osQ cjkcj
gksrk gSA ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
5-0 gksrh gS] og oLrqvksa osQ
fxjus ls {kfr igq¡pk ldrk gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 6-0
vFkok mlls vf/d gksrh gS]
og cgqr 'kfDRk'kkyh vkSj
ftldh rhozrk 7-0 vFkok
vfèkd gksrh gS] og lokZf/d
'kfDRk'kkyh le>k tkrk gSA
Hkwdai ls cpko dh rS;kjh
Hkwdai osQ nkSjku dgk¡ vkJ; ysa µ
lqfj{kr LFkku&jlksbZ osQ dkmaVj ;k est osQ uhps] nhokj osQ van:uh dksus esaA
buls nwj jgas&vkx okys LFkku] fpeuh osQ vklikl rFkk VwV ldus okyh
f[kM+fd;ksa] niZ.k ,oa rlohj izsQe lsA
igys ls rS;kj jgsa&vius nksLrksa ,oa Ikkfjokfjd lnL;ksa osQ chp tkx:drk IkSQyk,¡
,oa vkink dk lkeuk fo'okl ls djsaA
1- Hkwdai osQ i'pkr lekpkji=kksa osQ eq[; lekpkjksa osQ :i esa fn;k
x;k ^HkwoaQi&,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u* i<+saA bl ?kVuk dks Øekuqlkj
Js.khc¼ djsaA
2- dYiuk djsa fd ;fn Ldwy le; osQ chp esa vpkud Hkwdai vk
tk,] rks vki viuh lqj{kk osQ fy, D;k djsaxs\
26 tuojh 2001 dks Hkqt 'kgj esa fjDVj LosQy
ij 6-9 dh rhozrk okyk Hkh"k.k HkwdaiA
Hkqt esa Hkwdai osQ >VosQ
Ldwy lokZf/d
izHkkfor
Ldwyksa dh bekjrsa
fxjus ls de ls de
971 Nk=kksa ,oa 31
f'k{kdksa dh ekSr dh
vk'kadk gSA
xqtjkr ljdkj us bl ladV dk lkeuk djus
osQ fy, osaQnz ls foÙkh; lgk;rk ek¡xh gSA
eq[;ea=kh dh osaQnz ls vihy
iQksu ykbusa] ty Ikkbi ykbusa]
fo|qr LVs'ku ,oa lapkj ykbusa
lHkh vojksf/r gks x;sA
Hkqt dh rckgh
Hkwdai izHkkfor {ks=k esa
vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk
jk"Vªifr us vkikrdkyhu
fLFkfr dh ?kks"k.kk dhA
'kgj esa vkx
pkjdksy ,oa v¡xhfB;ksa osQ iyVus
osQ dkj.k vusd LFkkuksa ij vkxA
Hkwdai osQ rhu fnu ckn Hkh gj O;fDr rd
Hkkstu] dacy nok,¡ vkfn u igq¡pus osQ dkj.k
gkyr fparktudA
Hkqt esa fujk'kktud jkgr
1
23
4
5
6
7
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 15
eq[; LFkyko`Qfr;k¡
vi{k; ,oa vijnu uked nks izØeksa }kjk n`';Hkwfe yxkrkj fo?kfVr gksrh jgrh
gSA i`Foh dh lrg ij 'kSyksa osQ VwVus ls vi{k; dh fØ;k gksrh gSA Hkw&n`';
ij ty] iou ,oa fge tSls fofHkUu ?kVdksa osQ }kjk gksus okys {k; dks vijnu
dgrs gSaA ok;q] ty vkfn vijfnr inkFkZ dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku Ikj ys
tkrs gSa] vkSj iQyLo:i ,d LFkku ij fu{ksfir djrs gSaA vijnu ,oa fu{ksi.k
osQ ;s izØe i`Foh osQ /jkry ij fofHkUu LFkyko`Qfr;ksa dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA
unh osQ dk;Z
unh osQ ty ls n`'; Hkwfe dk vijnu gksrk gSA tc unh fdlh [kMs+ <ky okys
LFkku ls vR;f/d dBksj 'kSy ;k [kM+s <ky okyh ?kkVh esa fxjrh gS] rks ;g
tyizikr cukrh gS (fp=k 3-5)A
fu;kxzk tyizikr
 tc unh eSnkuh {ks=k esa izos'k djrh gS] rks og eksM+nkj ekxZ ij cgus
yxrh gSA unh osQ bUgha cMs+ eksM+ksa dks foliZ dgrs gSaA blosQ ckn foliks± osQ
fdukjksa ij yxkrkj vijnu ,oa fu{ksi.k 'kq: gks tkrk gSA foliZ ywi osQ fljs
fudV vkrs tkrs gSaA le; osQ lkFk foliZ ywi unh
ls dV tkrs gSa vkSj ,d vyx >hy cukrs gSa] ftls
pki>hy Hkh dgrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh unh vius rVksa
ls ckgj cgus yxrh gSA iQyLo:i fudVorhZ {ks=kksa
esa ck<+ vk tkrh gSA ck<+ osQ dkj.k unh osQ rVksa osQ
fudVorhZ {ks=kksa esa eghu feêðh ,oa vU; inkFkks± dk
fu{ksi.k djrh gSA ,slh feêðh ,oa inkFkks± dks volkn
dgrs gSaA blls lery mitkÅ ck<+o`Qr eSnku dk
fuekZ.k gksrk gSA unh osQ mfRFkr rVksa dks rVca/
dgrs gSaA leqnz rd igq¡prs&Ikgq¡prs unh dk izokg
èkhek gks tkrk gS rFkk unh vusd èkkjkvksa esa foHkkftr
• fo'o esa g”kkjksa NksVs&NksVs
tyizikr gSaA lcls Å¡pk
tyizikr nf{k.k vesfjdk
osQ osustq,yk dk ,atsy
tyizikr gSA vU; tyizikr
mÙkjh vesfjdk esa dukMk
rFkk la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk
dh lhek ij fLFkr fu;kxzk
tyizikr gS vkSj vi
z
+
Qhdk
esa tkafc;k ,oa ¯tckcos dh
lhek ij fLFkr foDVksfj;k
tyizikr gSaA
fp=k 3-6 % ck<+o`Qr eSnku esa unh }kjk fufeZr LFkyko`Qfr;k¡
foliZ
pki>hy
ck<+ dk eSnku
rVca/
fp=k 3-5 % ,d tyizikr
dBksj 'kSy
ty dh
'kfDr }kjk
dkVs x,
e`nq 'kSy
Page 5


LFkyeaMy vusd IysVksa esa foHkkftr gS] ftUgsa LFkyeaMyh; IysV dgrs gSaA
vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ;s IysV ges'kk /heh xfr ls pkjksa rjiQ
?kwerh jgrh gSa&izR;sd o"kZ osQoy oqQN feyhehVj osQ yxHkxA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kys gq, eSXek esa gksus okyh xfr osQ dkj.k ,slk gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ vanj
fi?kyk gqvk eSXek ,d o`Ùkh; :i esa ?kwerk jgrk gS] tSlk fd fØ;kdyki esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
IysV dh bl xfr osQ dkj.k i`Foh dh lrg ij ifjorZu gksrk gSA i`Foh
dh xfr dks mu cyksa osQ vk/kj ij foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS ftuosQ dkj.k
;s xfr;k¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA tks cy Ik`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx eas ?kfVr gksrs gSa
mUgsa vartZfur cy (,aMkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs gSa ,oa tks cy Ik`Foh dh
lrg Ikj mRiUu gksrs gSa mUgsa cfgtZfud cy (,Dlkstsfud iQkslZ) dgrs
gSa (fp=k 3-1)A vartZfur cy dHkh vkdfLed xfr mRiUu djrs gaS] rks
dHkh /heh xfrA Hkwdai ,oa Tokykeq[kh tSlh vkdfLed xfr osQ dkj.k
i`Foh dh lrg ij vR;f/d gkfu gksrh gSA
3 3
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh
,d jaxhu dkx”k dh NksVh&lh
xksyh yhft, vkSj bls ty osQ
vk/s Hkjs
chdj esa j[k
nhft,A chdj
dks frikbZ ij
j[kdj xeZ
djsaA ty xeZ gksus ij vki
ns[ksaxs fd xeZ ty dh ijrksa osQ
lkFk dkx”k dh xksyh Hkh Åij
mBrh gS vkSj
BaMs ikuh dh
ijrksa osQ lkFk
;g xksyh
uhps cSBrh
gSA i`Foh osQ vanj fLFkr fi?kyk
gqvk eSXek Hkh blh izdkj xfr
djrk gSA
LFkyeaMyh; IysV %
Hkw&iiZVh esa vusd cM+h ,oa oqQN
NksVh dBksj] vleku&vkdkj dh
IysVsa gksrh gSa] ftu ij egk}hi
,oa egklkxj dh lrgsa fVdh gSaA
fp=k 3-1 % LFky:iksa dk fodkl
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vartZfur cy cfgtZfur cy
vkdfLed cy iVy fo:i.k cy vijnu vkSj fu{ksi.k
ioZr fuekZ.kdkjh cy
HkwoaQi
Tokykeq[kh
HkwL[kyu
unh@cgrk ty
iou
leqnzh rjax
fgeun
Lava
tube
xSlsa o jk[k
ozsQVj
fudkl (osaV)
ykok
eSXek dks"B
eSaVy
iiZVh
Tokykeq[kh Hkw&iiZVh ij [kqyk ,d ,slk fNnz gksrk gS]
ftlls fi?kys gq, inkFkZ vpkud fudyrs gSa (fp=k 3-2)A
blh izdkj] LFkyeaMyh; IysVksa osQ xfr djus ij i`Foh dh lrg ij daiu
gksrk gSA ;g daiu i`Foh osQ pkjksa vksj xfr dj ldrk gSA bl daiu dks Hkwdai
dgrs gaS (fp=k 3-3)A Hkw&iiZVh osQ uhps og LFkku tgk¡ oaQiu vkjaHk gksrk gS]
mn~xe osaQnz dgykrk gSA mn~xe osaQnz osQ Hkwlrg ij mlosQ fudVre LFkku dks
vfèkosaQnz dgrs gSaA vf/osaQnz ls daiu ckgj dh vksj rjaxksa osQ :i esa xeu
djrh gSaA vf/osaQnz osQ fudVre Hkkx esa lokZf/d gkfu gksrh gS ,oa vf/osaQnz
ls nwjh c<+us osQ lkFk Hkwdai dh rhozrk /hjs&/hjs de gksrh tkrh gSA
,d crZu ysaA mls ty ls
Hkjdj <Ddu ls can dj nsa
rFkk ty xeZ djus osQ fy,
j[k nsaA vc oqQN eVj] pEep
vkSj eksrh <Ddu osQ mQij j[k
nsaA vki D;k ns[krs gSa\ tSls gh
ty esa mcky vkrk gS] <Ddu
Hkh fgyus yxrk gSA tks oLrq,¡
vkius <Ddu osQ Åij j[kh gSa
muesa oaQiu gksus yxrk gSA nkus
uhps tkrs gS vkSj pEep osQ
oaQiu ls èofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
blh Hkk¡fr tc HkwoaQi vkrs gSa]
rks i`Foh esa oaQiu mRiUu gksus
yxrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxs rhu izdkj dh
gksrh gSaµ
• ih rjaxsa vFkok vuqnSè;Z rjaxsa
• ,l rjaxsa vFkok vuqizLFk rjaxsa
• ,y rjaxsa vFkok i`"Bh; rjaxsa
bu rjaxksa osQ xq.k/eZ fo'odks'k
ls Kkr djus dk iz;kl
dhft,A
fp=k 3-2 % ,d Tokykeq[kh
fp=k 3-3 % ,d HkwoaQi dh mRifÙk
tsfud
(mRifÙk)
,aMks
(vUr%)
,Dlks
(cká)
,aMkstsfud
,Dlkstsfud
+
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 13 14 gekjk i;kZoj.k
fØ;kdyki
HkwoaQiekih
;|fi] Hkwdai dh Hkfo";ok.kh laHko ugha] ysfdu ;fn ge igys ls rS;kj
gksa] rks blosQ izHkko dks fuf'pr :i ls de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
LFkkuh; yksx oqQN lkekU; rjhdksa ls Hkwdai dh laHkkouk dk vuqeku yxkrs
gSa] tSlsµtkuojksa osQ O;ogkj dk vè;;u] rkykc esa eNfy;ksa dh mÙkstuk] lk¡Ikksa
dk /jkry Ikj vkukA
fp=k 3-4 % Hkqt esa HkwoaQi }kjk
fouk'k
HkwoaQiµ ,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u
HkwoaQi dk ekiu ,d ;a=k ls
fd;k tkrk gS] ftls HkwoaQiekih
dgrs gSaA HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
fjDVj LosQy ij ekih tkrh gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 2-0
vFkok mlls de gksrh gS]
mldk izHkko ugha osQ cjkcj
gksrk gSA ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk
5-0 gksrh gS] og oLrqvksa osQ
fxjus ls {kfr igq¡pk ldrk gSA
ftl HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 6-0
vFkok mlls vf/d gksrh gS]
og cgqr 'kfDRk'kkyh vkSj
ftldh rhozrk 7-0 vFkok
vfèkd gksrh gS] og lokZf/d
'kfDRk'kkyh le>k tkrk gSA
Hkwdai ls cpko dh rS;kjh
Hkwdai osQ nkSjku dgk¡ vkJ; ysa µ
lqfj{kr LFkku&jlksbZ osQ dkmaVj ;k est osQ uhps] nhokj osQ van:uh dksus esaA
buls nwj jgas&vkx okys LFkku] fpeuh osQ vklikl rFkk VwV ldus okyh
f[kM+fd;ksa] niZ.k ,oa rlohj izsQe lsA
igys ls rS;kj jgsa&vius nksLrksa ,oa Ikkfjokfjd lnL;ksa osQ chp tkx:drk IkSQyk,¡
,oa vkink dk lkeuk fo'okl ls djsaA
1- Hkwdai osQ i'pkr lekpkji=kksa osQ eq[; lekpkjksa osQ :i esa fn;k
x;k ^HkwoaQi&,d oLrqfLFkfr vè;;u* i<+saA bl ?kVuk dks Øekuqlkj
Js.khc¼ djsaA
2- dYiuk djsa fd ;fn Ldwy le; osQ chp esa vpkud Hkwdai vk
tk,] rks vki viuh lqj{kk osQ fy, D;k djsaxs\
26 tuojh 2001 dks Hkqt 'kgj esa fjDVj LosQy
ij 6-9 dh rhozrk okyk Hkh"k.k HkwdaiA
Hkqt esa Hkwdai osQ >VosQ
Ldwy lokZf/d
izHkkfor
Ldwyksa dh bekjrsa
fxjus ls de ls de
971 Nk=kksa ,oa 31
f'k{kdksa dh ekSr dh
vk'kadk gSA
xqtjkr ljdkj us bl ladV dk lkeuk djus
osQ fy, osaQnz ls foÙkh; lgk;rk ek¡xh gSA
eq[;ea=kh dh osaQnz ls vihy
iQksu ykbusa] ty Ikkbi ykbusa]
fo|qr LVs'ku ,oa lapkj ykbusa
lHkh vojksf/r gks x;sA
Hkqt dh rckgh
Hkwdai izHkkfor {ks=k esa
vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk
jk"Vªifr us vkikrdkyhu
fLFkfr dh ?kks"k.kk dhA
'kgj esa vkx
pkjdksy ,oa v¡xhfB;ksa osQ iyVus
osQ dkj.k vusd LFkkuksa ij vkxA
Hkwdai osQ rhu fnu ckn Hkh gj O;fDr rd
Hkkstu] dacy nok,¡ vkfn u igq¡pus osQ dkj.k
gkyr fparktudA
Hkqt esa fujk'kktud jkgr
1
23
4
5
6
7
gekjh cnyrh i`Foh 15
eq[; LFkyko`Qfr;k¡
vi{k; ,oa vijnu uked nks izØeksa }kjk n`';Hkwfe yxkrkj fo?kfVr gksrh jgrh
gSA i`Foh dh lrg ij 'kSyksa osQ VwVus ls vi{k; dh fØ;k gksrh gSA Hkw&n`';
ij ty] iou ,oa fge tSls fofHkUu ?kVdksa osQ }kjk gksus okys {k; dks vijnu
dgrs gSaA ok;q] ty vkfn vijfnr inkFkZ dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku Ikj ys
tkrs gSa] vkSj iQyLo:i ,d LFkku ij fu{ksfir djrs gSaA vijnu ,oa fu{ksi.k
osQ ;s izØe i`Foh osQ /jkry ij fofHkUu LFkyko`Qfr;ksa dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA
unh osQ dk;Z
unh osQ ty ls n`'; Hkwfe dk vijnu gksrk gSA tc unh fdlh [kMs+ <ky okys
LFkku ls vR;f/d dBksj 'kSy ;k [kM+s <ky okyh ?kkVh esa fxjrh gS] rks ;g
tyizikr cukrh gS (fp=k 3-5)A
fu;kxzk tyizikr
 tc unh eSnkuh {ks=k esa izos'k djrh gS] rks og eksM+nkj ekxZ ij cgus
yxrh gSA unh osQ bUgha cMs+ eksM+ksa dks foliZ dgrs gSaA blosQ ckn foliks± osQ
fdukjksa ij yxkrkj vijnu ,oa fu{ksi.k 'kq: gks tkrk gSA foliZ ywi osQ fljs
fudV vkrs tkrs gSaA le; osQ lkFk foliZ ywi unh
ls dV tkrs gSa vkSj ,d vyx >hy cukrs gSa] ftls
pki>hy Hkh dgrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh unh vius rVksa
ls ckgj cgus yxrh gSA iQyLo:i fudVorhZ {ks=kksa
esa ck<+ vk tkrh gSA ck<+ osQ dkj.k unh osQ rVksa osQ
fudVorhZ {ks=kksa esa eghu feêðh ,oa vU; inkFkks± dk
fu{ksi.k djrh gSA ,slh feêðh ,oa inkFkks± dks volkn
dgrs gSaA blls lery mitkÅ ck<+o`Qr eSnku dk
fuekZ.k gksrk gSA unh osQ mfRFkr rVksa dks rVca/
dgrs gSaA leqnz rd igq¡prs&Ikgq¡prs unh dk izokg
èkhek gks tkrk gS rFkk unh vusd èkkjkvksa esa foHkkftr
• fo'o esa g”kkjksa NksVs&NksVs
tyizikr gSaA lcls Å¡pk
tyizikr nf{k.k vesfjdk
osQ osustq,yk dk ,atsy
tyizikr gSA vU; tyizikr
mÙkjh vesfjdk esa dukMk
rFkk la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk
dh lhek ij fLFkr fu;kxzk
tyizikr gS vkSj vi
z
+
Qhdk
esa tkafc;k ,oa ¯tckcos dh
lhek ij fLFkr foDVksfj;k
tyizikr gSaA
fp=k 3-6 % ck<+o`Qr eSnku esa unh }kjk fufeZr LFkyko`Qfr;k¡
foliZ
pki>hy
ck<+ dk eSnku
rVca/
fp=k 3-5 % ,d tyizikr
dBksj 'kSy
ty dh
'kfDr }kjk
dkVs x,
e`nq 'kSy
16 gekjk i;kZoj.k
gks tkrh gS] ftudks forfjdk dgk
tkrk gSA ;gk¡ unh bruh /heh gks
tkrh gS fd ;g vius lkFk yk,
eycs dk fu{ksi.k djus yxrh gSA
IkzR;sd forfjdk vius eqgkus dk fuekZ.k
djrh gSA lHkh eqgkuksa osQ volknksa osQ
laxzg ls MsYVk dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS
(fp=k 3-7)A
leqnzh rjax osQ dk;Z
leqnzh rjax osQ vijnu ,oa fu{ksi.k
rVh; LFkyko`Qfr;k¡ cukrs gSaA leqnzh rjaxsa
yxkrkj 'kSyksa ls Vdjkrh jgrh gaS] ftlls
njkj fodflr gksrh gSA le; osQ lkFk ;s
cM+h vkSj pkSM+h gksrh tkrh gSaA budks
leqnzh xqiQk dgrs gSaA bu xqiQkvksa osQ
cM+s gksrs tkus ij buesa osQoy Nr gh
cprh gS] ftlls rVh; esgjkc curs gSaA
yxkrkj vijnu Nr dks Hkh rksM+ nsrk gS
vkSj osQoy nhokjsa cprh gSaA nhokj tSlh
bu vko`Qfr;ksa dks LVSd dgrs gSaA leqnzh
ty osQ Åij yxHkx ÅèokZ/j mBs gq,
Å¡ps 'kSyh; rVksa dks leqnz Hk`xq dgrs gSaA leqnzh rjaxsa fdukjksa ij volkn tek
dj leqnzh iqfyu dk fuekZ.k djrh gSaA
fgeun osQ dk;Z
fgeun vFkok fgekuh cI
+
kZQ dh ufn;k¡ gksrh
gSaA fgeun vius uhps dh dBksj p^kuksa ls
xksyk'eh fe^h vkSj iRFkjksa dks vijfnr dj
nsrh gS vkSj xksyk'eh fe^h ,oa iRFkjksa ls
Hkwn`'; dk vijnu djrh gSA fgeun xgjs
xrks± dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA ioZrh; {ks=k esa ciZQ
fi?kyus ls mu xrks± esa ty Hkj tkrk gS vkSj
os lqanj >hy cu tkrs gSaA fgeun osQ }kjk
yk, x, IknkFkZ] tSlsµNksVs&cM+s 'kSy] jsr ,oa
ryNV fe^h fu{ksfir gksrs gSaaA ;s fu{ksi
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