ANCIENT HISTORY CONTINUED... UPSC Notes | EduRev

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#5) BUDDHISM AND JAINISM 

Founders of both these religions were Kshatriyas , so they rejected Vedas and both allowed Shudras to follow their religion. Now we will study them in a table format-

CHRACTERISTICS 

BUDDHISM
JAINISM
1) FOUNDER

GAUTAM BUDDHA (567BC)

MAHAVIR SWAMI (24TH TIRTHANKAR)

1st tirthankar -Rishabhdev 

2nd - Bharta

23rd - Parshavnath

2)ORIGINAL NAME
SIDDHARTH
VARDHMAN
3) FAMILY

FATHER- Shudhodhana

MOTHER- Mahamaya 

STEP MOTHER -Prajapati Gautami

WIFE- Yashodra

SON-Rahul

FATHER-Siddharth

MOTHER-Trishla

WIFE-Yasoda

DAUGHTER- Priyadarshani (married to Jamali , 1st disciple of Mahavir.)


4)BIRTHPLACE

at Rumandei village of Lumbini in Kapilvastu ,Nepal , as prince of Sakya clan.

Kundagram, Vaishali, in famous Republic of Jantrika , Bangladesh , in Jantrika clan.
5) LIFE EVENTS

-saw 4 great sights with his friend Channa -

Sick man, Old man, Dead body, Ascetic .

-left home with Channa and horse Kantaka at the age of 29years. leaving home is called as Mahabhinishkarmana.

- at 35 , on the banks of river Nirjara , under a peepal tree ( now called as Bodhi tree) , he started meditation, got enlightenment after 48 days on full moon of Baisakhi.

- delivered 1st sermon at Deer Park at Sarnath called as Dharamchakraparivartan.


-At 36, he met Makkali Ghosal , founder of section called as Ajivika based on Niyativaad ( everything is destined).

-at 43, he got enlightenment at a place called as Jrimbhikagram on the banks of river Rajupalika under a Sal tree and is called as  Kaivalya.


6) DEATH

died at the age of 80 , at Kusinara (Gorakhpur ,U.P).

1956, 2600th death anniversary of Buddha was celebrated.


died at 72 years at Pavapuri , near Rajgriha
7)PRINCIPLES

4 Aryan truths 

sorrow , desire(cause of sorrow),

cessation of sorrow, path of cessation of sorrow.


-8 fold path 

right belief, right speech, right thought, right action, right collection, right endeavours/9 to cultivate pure feelings), right means of livelihood(honest earning), right meditation.

(TO LEARN THIS , CODE IS -

BEST is CALM....

B FOR BELIEF , E FOR ENDEAVOURS, S FOR SPEECH, AND SO ON)


ahimsa, satya, aparigrah, achori, celibacy (Brahmcharya) added by Mahavir later 



-TRIRATNA 

right faith, right knowledge, right conduct

they had faith in tirthankars ,( in journey of salvation, one has to be a saadhu, then upadhaya , acharya (tirthankar), arihant.)


8)TRUTH AND NON VIOLENCEFOLLOWEDFOLLOWED
9)BRAHMCHARYAYESYES
10) ATHEISMdid not believe in Goddid not believe in God
11)BELIEFthings are changing( transitory nature)creation is permanent
12)KARMASbelieved believed
13)SOULdid not believe believed world is created by 1 soul.
14)REBIRTHbelievedbelieved
15)MOKSHA(NIRVANA)believedbelieved
16)SPREADit got spread outside India .
believed that salvation(mukti) can be achieved by either samadhi or sambodhi.
- 4 Aryagunas ( noble virtues)
maitri( love and friendship), karuna(compassion), mudita(joy on success of others), upeksha( indifference to others)
Crossing a sea was sin that is why it couldn't spread out of India.and also prohibits agriculture.
17)RELIGION COUNCILS / CONFERENCES1st- Rajgriha (under Ajatshatru , presided by Anand)
2nd - Vaishali presided by Kalashok to remove the differences between monks.
3rd - Pataliputra by Ashoka
4th- Kundal Vanvihar in Kashmir
after this, sect was divided into-
hinayana -worshiped Buddha as a teacher, used Pali language
mahayana- worshiped Buddha as God, used sanskrit language
mahayana - believed in incarnations of Budha (avtaar)-kanakmuni, sakyamuni, padampani, manjushree, avlokiteshwara, MAITRAYANI (yet to come)
1st- Pataliputra, it divided Jainism into
shwetambar -used to wear white clothes, more liberal.
digambar- did not wear clothes, orthodox, rigid. Chandragupta Maurya joined it and died at Sarvanvelagola in Mysore.


Buddhism ppl used to believe in yellow robe, head shaved,  begging bowl, needle, and string, meals once a day and had 3 jewels-

buddham sharnam gachchami

dhammam sharnam gachchami

sangham sharnam gachchami

(reciting which for 3 times , a person could adopt buddhism).

DECLINE-

Brahmanical reactions against Buddhism.

Shankaracharya and Kumaril Bhatt death blow to Buddhism in India.

Bodhi tree was uprooted by Sasank (ruler of Bengal in 7th century A.D.)


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