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Adjective - 1 | English Grammar Basic - Class 10 PDF Download

An Adjective is a describing word that adds something to the meaning of a noun.

As,
Harish is a Clever boy
                     ↓
                    Adj.
Here, Clever shows  what kind of boy Harish is; or, we may say, clever describes the boy

I do not like that girl  —Harish
                          ↓
                          Adj.
Here, that point out which girl is meant.

He gave me ten orange.
                      ↓
                    Adj.
Here ten shows how many orange he–gave me

There is enough time for departure.
                            ↓
                          Adj.
Here enough shows how much time is—there for departure

KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are of the following kinds:
(1) Adjectives of quality
(2) Adjectives of quantity
(3) Adjectives of number
(4) Demonstrative adjectives
(5) Distributive adjectives
(6) Emphasizing adjectives
(7) Interrogative adjectives
(8) Possessive adjectives
(9) Proper adjectives
(10) Relative adjectives
(11) Exclamatory adjectives

(1) Adjectives of quality

These adjectives show the kind or quality of a person or thing.
As,
The Ganges is the holy river.
Kolkata is a large city.
He is an honest man.

(i) In using adjectives of quality, we first use ordinal than cardinal.
As,
She has read the three first Chapters —wrong
She has read the first three Chapters —correct
I  have read the four last stanzas —wrong
I have read the last four stanzas —correct

(ii) One or two adjectives can be used before or after nouns.

A black and white film
   ↓               ↓      ↓
  Adj.         Adj.  Noun

A film black and white
  ↓        ↓                ↓
 Noun  Adj.          Adj.

But,
A four feet high wall   —wrong
    ↓      ↓    ↓      ↓
 Adj. Adj. Adj.  Noun
A wall which is four feet high —correct

(iii) These adjectives are used only predicatively 
— sleep, awake, afraid, ashamed, alike, alone etc.
As,
Ram is an alone boy —wrong
Ram is alone —correct
Ravi is an ashamed boy —wrong
Ravi is ashamed —correct

(2) Adjectives of quantity

Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant:
All, any, enough, half, little, much, no, whole, some etc.
As,
He drank much milk
I want  some paper
I drank a little milk
It did not cause any pain.
Jones got the whole property.

(3) Adjectives of Number

Adjectives of number (or Numeral Adjectives) are those that show how many are meant or in what order:

five, fifth, one, first, all, few, many, some etc.

There are two kinds of Adjectives of number  those which show exactly how many persons or things there are, or in what order in a series any of them stands, are called

Definite Numerals : four, fourth, nine, ninth etc.

(i) Those adjectives of number which do not show that the exact number is, are called Indefinite Numerals: all, few, many more, several, some etc.
As,
All men must die.
Few cats like cold water.
Many boys were present.
Some roses are white.

(ii) The Definite Numerals again are divided into two classes:

(a) Adjectives of number which show how many are called Cardinals and,

(b) those which show in what order a person or thing stands, are called Ordinals.
One, two, three, four, five etc. —(Cardinals)
First, second, third, fourth, fifth etc.  — (Ordinals)

As,
I have two hands.
Wednesday is the fourth day of the week.

(iii) The same adjective may be an Adjective of Number or an Adjective of Quantity according to sense:
As,

NumberQuantity
I lost some books.I drank  some milk.
More boys are wanted for the job.I want more milk.


(iv)  Many followed immediately by nor an takes a singular noun and a singular verb, but if preceded by a with great or  good following, it takes a plural verb.
As,
Many a man was present there.

A great many boys were present there.

(4) Demonstrative adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives point out which person or thing is meant.
As,
This book is mine, that book is yours.
These trees are tall, those trees are short.
This boy is stronger than Jay.
That boy is laborious.

Note :  A demonstrative adjective and the noun qualified by it, must be of the same number.
As,
This kind of books is rare (Not these kind)

(5) Distributive adjectives

The Indefinite Numeral adjectives-  each, every, either and neither when used with nouns to show that persons or things are taken separately, either one at a time or several at a time in separate lots, are called Distributive adjectives.

(i) Each and Every

Each may be used both as pronoun and adjective but, every is used only as an adjective.

Each is used with two or more than two things but, every is used with more than two things.
    As,
Each of the two girls is beautiful.
    ↓               ↓
  each          two
Each pen cost a shilling.

or, Each of the pens cost a shilling.

Every pen cost a penny.
  ↓
every

Everyone of the ten boys is industrious.
  ↓                         ↓
every                  ten

(ii) Either and Neither

Either means:

(a) one of two

or,    (b) each of two (i.e., both)

As,
You can chose either party (one party or the other)

Either side scored a goals (each of the two sides)

Neither is the negative form of either and means neither the one nor the other.
As,
Neither party won the game.
Neither of the two girls is lazy.

But,
Neither of the three boys is intelligent.    —wrong

None of the three boys is intelligent.    —correct

(As, Neither is used with two).

(6) Emphasizing adjectives

Adjectives used with nouns for the sake of emphasis, are called Emphasizing adjectives.

As,
I saw this very book.
                 ↓
Emphasizing
              Adj.
He is my own brother
                ↓
Emphasizing
              Adj.

(7) Interrogative adjectives

The Interrogative Pronouns what, which and whose, if used with nouns in asking questions are called interrogative Adjectives.
As,
What kind of manner is this?
What manner of man is he ?
Which side will you choose?
Which way shall we go?
Whose pen is this ?
Whose book is this?

(8) Possessive adjectives

Adjectives formed from pronouns in the Genitive (Possessive) case are called Possessive adjectives.  Like— My, your, his, her, its and their.

As,
My mother is coming.
Your time is up.
His pen is lost.
Her work is done.
Its skin is glossy.
Their work is good.

(9) Proper adjectives

Proper adjectives are formed from Proper nouns.
As,

Proper nounProper adjective
IndiaIndian
ChinaChinese
JapanJapanese
ItalyItalian
NepalNepalese
AmericaAmerican
GandhiGandhian

 

(10) Relative adjectives

The Relative pronouns which and what when used as adjectives, are called Relative adjectives.
As,
I gathered what information I could.
I was ill, which fact caused my absence.

(11) Exclamatory adjectives

What nonsense !
What a pity !
What an idea !
What in the sentences above is used as an exclamatory adjective.

(What and what a/what aware used in exclamations.)

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FAQs on Adjective - 1 - English Grammar Basic - Class 10

1. What is the importance of learning adjectives in language learning?
Adjectives play a crucial role in language learning as they allow us to describe and provide additional information about nouns or pronouns. By learning adjectives, we can enhance our vocabulary, express ourselves more precisely, and make our speech or writing more engaging.
2. How do adjectives modify nouns in a sentence?
Adjectives modify nouns by providing more details about their size, shape, color, quantity, or other qualities. They usually come before the noun they modify. For example, in the sentence "She wore a beautiful dress," the adjective "beautiful" describes the noun "dress" and gives us additional information about its appearance.
3. Can adjectives have different forms depending on gender and number?
Yes, adjectives can have different forms depending on the gender and number of the noun they modify. In many languages, including the one this article is written in, adjectives agree with the gender and number of the noun they describe. For example, in Spanish, the adjective "grande" (meaning "big") changes to "grande" for a singular masculine noun, "grande" for a singular feminine noun, "grandes" for plural masculine nouns, and "grandes" for plural feminine nouns.
4. How can I improve my understanding and use of adjectives in writing?
Improving your understanding and use of adjectives in writing can be achieved through practice and exposure. Reading extensively, particularly well-written literature, can help you observe how adjectives are used effectively. Additionally, actively incorporating adjectives in your own writing and seeking feedback from others, such as teachers or peers, can further enhance your skills in using adjectives appropriately and creatively.
5. Are there any common mistakes to avoid when using adjectives?
Yes, there are common mistakes to avoid when using adjectives. One mistake is using too many adjectives in a sentence, which can make the writing or speech overly descriptive and convoluted. It is important to choose adjectives that are relevant and necessary for conveying the intended meaning. Another mistake is using adjectives incorrectly or without proper agreement with the noun they modify, especially in languages where adjectives have different forms based on gender and number. Proofreading and editing your work can help identify and correct these mistakes.
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