Analogy - Reasoning for CLAT Preparation CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

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Chapter 4

Analogy

The word ANALOGY is a Noun which literally means a similar feature, condition, state etc. shared by two things that are compared. Questions on Verbal Analogy judge your ability to understand the diverse relationship between various elements, things, phenomena, acts, terms, etc. in their proper context. Such questions are aimed at testing the candidate’s overall knowledge, power of reasoning and the ability to think conclusively and logically. A candidate can develop and improve his ability to judge conclusively through sufficient practice and awareness. The questions are also a test of general knowledge of the student.

State and Capital Relationship
Ex. 1.  “Delhi” is related to “India” in the same way as “London” is related to ?

(1) Germany
(2) England
(3) Canada
(4) France                             

Sol (2)  Delhi is the capital of India, Similarly, London is the capital of England.

Ex. 2. “Tamil Nadu” is related to “Chennai” in the same way as “Punjab” is related to? 
(1) Bangalore
(2) Chennai
(3) Madurai
(4) Chandigarh

Sol (4) Tamil Nadu and Punjab are two states of India. Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu.  Similarly, Chandigarh is the capital of Punjab. 

Country and Currency Relationship
Ex. 3.  “Italy is related to “Lira” in the same way as “China” is related to    
(1) Shekel                                              
(2) Remnibi                    
(3) Krone                      
(4) Dollar
Sol (2) "Italy” is a country and its currency was called Lira. Similarly, The currency of China is Renminbi.

Country and Name of The Parliament
Ex. 4. “India” is related to “Parliament” in the same way as “Japan” is related to 
(1) Majlis                                              
(2) National Assembly        
(3) Althing            
(4) Diet
Sol (4) Japan’s Parliament is called Diet.

Country and Its National Games/Sports

Ex. 5. “Hockey” is related to “India” in the same way as “Baseball” is related to 
(1) Australia                          
(2) Canada                  
(3) USA                          
(4) China                                              

 Sol(3) 
Hockey is the National Game of India. Similarly, Baseball is the National Game of USA,

Gender (Male and Female)

Ex. 6.  “Dog” is related to “Bitch” in the same way as “Tiger” is related to
(1) Tigris  
(2) Tigress
(3) Panther
(4) Cub 

Sol (2) “Here Male-Female relationship has been shown. Dog is male and its female counterpart is bitch. In similar way, Tiger is male and its female counterpart is Tigress.”

Animal & Young One Relationship
Ex. 7.     ‘Chicken’ is related to ‘Hen’ in the same way as ‘Kitten’ is related to …………. . 
(1) Dog                                  
(2) Cat                                  
(3) Duck                                
(4) Swan
Sol. (2)  “Here animal and young one relationship has been shown. Chicken is young one of hen. In same way kitten is young one of cat.”
Ex. 8.    “Pony” is related to “Horse” in the same way as “puppy” is related to
(1) Horse
(2) Cattle
(3) Kangaroo
(4) Dog
Sol (4)  “Here animal and young one relationship has been shown. Pony is young one of Horse. In same way Puppy is young one of Dog.”

Animal and Its Trait
Ex. 9.  “Barking” is related to “dog” in the same way as “roar” is related to 
(1) Sheep                              
(2) Goat  
(3) Wolf
(4) Lion                         

Sol (4)  “The sound of dog is called barking. Similarly, the sound made by Lion is known as roaring.”

Animal and its habitat 
Ex. 10. “Stable” is related to “Horse” in the same way as “Nest” is related to 
(1) Darkness            
(2) Bird                                              
(3) Forest                              
(4) Animal
Sol (2)  “The living place of horse is called stable and the same way bird’s living place is called nest.”

Worker and Working Place

Ex. 11.  “Court” is related to “Lawyers” in the same way as “School” is related to
(1) Wards                              
(2) Beds                                
(3) Teachers          
(4) Patients
Sol (3)  “Lawyers plead in the court and Teacher teach in the school. Thus, this question is based on worker-working place relationship.”

tools and action relationship

Ex. 12.  “Spade” is related to “dig” in the same way as “Axe” is related to
(1) Carve                        
(2) Cut                                          
(3) Grip                  
(4) Amplify                   

 Sol (2)    “Spade is used for digging, similarly Axe is used to cut the trees.

Important Relationships

1) Instrument and Measurement
1. Thermometer - Temperature
2.  Anemometer - Wind vane
3. Odometer - Speed
4. Scale - Length
5. Balance  - Mass
6. Sphygmomanometer - Blood Pressure
7. Rain Gauge - Rain
8. Hygrometer - Humidity
9. Ammeter - Current
10. Screw Gauge - Thickness
11. Seismograph - Earthquakes
12. Taseometer - Strains

2) Quantity and Unit

1. Mass - Kilogram 
2. Energy - Joule 
3. Volume - Litre 
4. Power - Watt 
5. Work - Joule 
6. Area - Hectare 
7. Force - Newton 
8. Resistance - Ohm 
9. Angle - Radians 
10. Potential - Volt 
11. Current - Ampere 
12. Temperature - Degrees

3) Individual and Group
1. Grape - Bunch of Grapes
2. Key - Bunch of Keys
3. Flower - Bunch of Flowers
4. Stick - Bundle of Stick
5. Mountain - Chain of Mountains
6. Sheep - Flock of Sheep
7. Bird - Flight of Birds
8. Star - Galaxy of Stars
9. Tree - Grove of Trees
10. Labourer - Gang of Labourers
11. Deer - Herd of Deer
12. Swine - Herd of Swine
13. Bee - Hive of Bees
14. Cattle - Herd of Cattle
15. Ruin - Heap of Ruins
16. Stone - Heap of Stones
17. Sand - Heap of Sand
18. Hound - Pack of hounds
19. Shoes - Pair of Shoes
20. Hill - Range of Hills
21. Event - Series of Events
22. Fly - Swarm of flies
23. Horse - Troop of Horses

4) Animal and Young One
1. Cow - Calf
2. Cat - Kitten
3. Butterfly - Caterpillar
4. Dog - Puppy
5. Lion - Cub
6. Man - Child
7. Wolf - Cub
8. Goat - Kid
9. Fox - Cub
10. Horse - Pony
11. Sheep - Lamb
12. Insect - Larva
13. Hen - Chicken
14. Duck - Duckling
15. Bear - Cub
16. Deer - Fawn
17. Frog - Tadpole
18. Stag - Fawn

5) Word and Intensity

1. Anger - Rage
2. Kindle - Burn
3. Quarrel - War
4. Famous - Renowned
5. Refuse - Deny
6. Moist - Drench
7. Wish - Desire
8. Sink - Drown
9. Error - Blunder
10. Unhappy - Sad
11. Crime - Sin

6) Male and Female
1. Horse - Mare
2. Stag - Doe
3. Lion - Lioness
4. Husband - Wife
5. Nephew - Niece
6. Bull - Cow
7. Gander - Goose
8. Wizard - Witch
9. Cock - Hen
10. Stallion - MAre
11. Tiger - Tigress
12. Actor - Actress
13. Author - Authoress
14. Prince - Princess
15. Earl - Countess
16. Dog - Bitch
17. Boy - Girl
18. Drone - Bee
19. Gentleman - Lady
20. Bear - She-bear
21. Fox - Vixen
22. Duck - Drake
23. Bridegroom - Bride
24. Waiter - Waitress
25. Monk - Nun
26. Master - Mistress
27. King - Queen
28. Leopard - Leopardess
29. Ram - Ewe
30. Fiancé - Fiancée

7) Individual and Class
1. Lizard - Reptile
2. Ostrich - Bird
3. Butterfly - Insect
4. Rat - Rodent
5. Man - Mammal
6. Snake - Reptile
7. Whale - Mammal
8. Fish - Pisces

8) Homes/Dwelling Places

 Creatures

 Persons

 Bees in a hive

 An Arab in a dowar.

 A bird in a nest

 A convict in a prison.

 Cattle are kept in shed

 An Eskimo in an igloo

 A squirrel in a drey.

 A gypsy in a caravan

 A dog in a kennel

 A hermit in a hermitage

 A fox in a hole

 A knight in a mansion

 A hare in a burrow

 A monk in a monastery

 A horse in a stable

 A nobleman in a castle

 A lion in a den

 A nun in a convent

 A mouse in a hole

 A peasant in a cottage

 An owl in a barn,

A soldier in barracks

 A pig in sty

 

9) Study and Topic

1. Ornithology - Birds
2. Botany - Plants
3. Entomology - Insects
4. Oology - Eggs
5. Virology - Viruses
6. Herpetology - Amphibians
7. Pathology - Diseases
8. Paleography - Writings
9. Cardiology - Heart
10. Haematology - Blood
11. Mycology - Fungi
12. Malacology - Molluscs
13. Taxonomy - Classification
14. Orography - Mountains
15. Eccrinology - Secretions
16. Nidology - Nests
17. Astronomy - Heavenly Bodies
18. Seismology - Earthquakes
19. Onomatology - Names
20. Zoology - Animals 

10) Worker and Tool
1. Blacksmith - Anvil
2. Woodcutter - Axe
3. Labourer - Spade
4. Sculptor - Chisel
5. chef - Knife
6. Doctor - Stethoscope
7. Surgeon - Scalpel
8. Warrior - Sword
9. Carpenter - Saw
10. Tailor - Needle

11) Tool and Action
1. Needle - sew
2. Sword - Slaughter
3. Filter - Purify
4. Pen - Write
5. Spoon - Feed
6. Gun - Shoot
7. Chisel - Carve
8. Axe - Cut
9. Loudspeaker - Amplify

12) Worker and Working Place
1. Chef - Kitchen
2. Warrior - Battlefield
3. Sailor - Ship
4. Doctor - Hospital
5. Servant - House
6. Artist - Theater
7. Actor - Stage
8. Lawyer - Court
9. Beautician - Parlour
10. Painter - Gallery

13) Worker and Product
1. Mason - Wall
2. Hunter - Prey
3. Butcher - Meat
4. Cobbler - Shoes
5. Poet - Poem
6. Teacher - Education
7. Judge - Justice
8. Farmer - Crop
9. Author - Book
10. Architect - Design
11. Dramatist - Play
12. Tailor - Clothes
13. Chef - Food
14. Producer - Film

14) Product and Raw Material
1. Prism - Glass
2. Wall - Brick
3. Shoes - Leather
4. Metal - Ore
5. Jaggery - Sugarcane
6. Fabric - Yarn
7. Road - Asphalt
8. Sack - Jute
9. Paper - Pulp
10. Oil - Seed
11. Butter - Milk
12. Furniture - Wood
13. Pullover - Wool
14. Rubber - Latex
15. Wine - Grapes
16. Cloth - Fibre
17. Book - Paper
18. Linen - Flax
19. Jewellery - Gold
20. Paper - Pulp

15) Part and Whole Relationship
1. Pen - Nib
2. House - Kitchen
3. Class - Student
4. Book - Chapter
5. Computer - Mouse
6. Garden - Plants
7. Pencil - Lead
8. Computer - Monitor
9. Room - Window
10. Airplane - Cockpit
11. Flower - Petal
12. Fruit - Seed

16) Animal and Sound
1. Assess - Bray
2. Bees - Hum
3. Camels - Grunt
4. Cattle - Low
5. Crows - Crow
6. Elephant - Trumpet
7. Flies - Buzz
8. Hawks - Scream
9. Monkeys - Chatter
10. Lambs - Bleat
11. Nightingale - Sing
12. Bears - Growl

17)  Where Persons, Things, Animals, Etc Are Kept, Grown, Exhibited, Stored
Airplanes are kept in a hangar.
Athletic competitions are held in a stadium.
Athletic exercises are performed in a gymnasium.
Astronomical observations are made in an observatory.
Bees are kept in an apiary.
Clothes are kept in a wardrobe.
Dead bodies are buried in a cemetery.
Dead bodies are cremated in a crematorium.
Fishes are kept in an aquarium.
Fruit trees are grown in an orchard.
Gas is stored in a cylinder.
Goods are stored in a depot.
Grains are stored in a granary.
Grapes are grown in a vineyard.
Guns are kept in an armoury.
Medicines are compounded in a dispensary.
Motorcars are kept in a garage.
Scientific experiments are conducted in a laboratory.
Sick people are treated in a hospital.
Young plants grow in a nursery.

18) State and Capital

State

Capital

Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

Assam

Dispur

Bihar

Patna

Goa

Penjim

Chattisgarh

Raipur

Gujarat

Gandhi Nagar

Haryana

Chandigarh

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Jammu and Kashmir

Shrinagar

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Karnataka

Bangalore

Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Manipur

Imphal

Meghalaya

Shilong

Mizoram

Aizawal

Nagaland

Kohima

Orissa

Bhubaneswar

Punjab

Chandigarh

Rajasthan

Jaipur

Sikkim

Gangtok

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Tripura

Agartala

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

Uttrakhand

Dehradun

West Bengal

Kolkata

 19) Name of Countries/Capitals & Currency

Sr. No.

Name of Country

Capital

Currency

1.

Afghanistan

Kabul

Afghani

2.

Argentina

Buenos Aires

Peso

3.

Australia

Canberra

Australian Dollar 

4.

Austria

Vienna

Euro

5.

Bangladesh

Dhaka

Taka

6.

Belarus

Minsk

Rouble

7.

Bhutan

Thimphu

Ngultrum

8.

Brazil

Brasilia

Real

9.

Cambodia

Phnom Penh

Riel

10.

Canada

Ottawa

Canadian Dollar

11.

Chile

Santiago

Chilean peso

12.

China

Beijing

Renminbi

13.

Cuba

Havana

Cuban peso

14.

Egypt

Cairo

Pound

15.

France

Paris

Euro

16.

Germany

Berlin

Euro

17.

Iran

Tehran

Rial

18.

Iraq

Baghdad

New Iraqi Dinar

19.

Israel

Jerusalem

Shekel

20.

Italy

Rome

Euro

21.

Japan

Tokyo

Yen

22.

Jordan

Amman

Dinar

23.

Kazakhstan

Astana

Tenge

24.

Kenya

Nairobi

Shilling

25.

North Korea

Pyongyang

Won

26.

South Korea

Seoul

Won

27.

Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek

Som

28.

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

Ringgit

29.

Maldives

Male

Rufiyaa

30.

Mauritius

Port Louis

Mauritius Rupee

31.

Myanmar

Naypyidaw

Kyat

32.

Nepal

Kathmandu

Nepalese Rupee

33.

New Zealand

Wellington

New Zealand Dollar

34.

Pakistan

Islamabad

Pakistan Rupee

35.

Philippines

Manila

Peso

36.

Russia

Moscow

Rouble

37.

South Africa

Cape Town

Rand

38.

Sri Lanka

Sri Jayewardenepura (Colombo)

Sri Lankan Rupee

39.

UAE

Abu Dhabi

Dirham

40.

U.K.

London

Pound Sterling

41.

U.S.A.

Washington, D.C.

Dollar

42.

Zimbabwe

Harare

Zimbabwe Dollar

20) Name of the Parliaments of Some Countries 

RiksdagFolketing

Country

Name of Parliament 

India

Lower House- (Lok Sabha)

Upper House- (Rajya Sabha)

Britain

Lower House-House of Commons

Upper House-House of Lords

U.S.A.

Lower House-House of Representatives

Upper House-Senate

(Both the Houses are known as Congress)

Germany

Lower House-Bundesrat

Upper House-Bundestag

Greece

Chamber of Deputies

Russia

Dumas

Iceland

Althing

(World’s oldest surviving parliament)

Spain

Cortes

Holland

Status General

Israel

Knesset

Iran/Maldives

Majlis

Japan

Diet

Sweden

Norway

Storting

Denmark

Poland

Sejm

China

National People’s Congress

Malaysia

Lower House-Dewan Rakyat

Upper House-Dewan Negara

Bhutan

Tsongdu

Afghanistan

Shoora

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