Balanced Diet for a human being CLAT Notes | EduRev

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CLAT : Balanced Diet for a human being CLAT Notes | EduRev

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  • The components of food are: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Water and Roughage.
  • If all the components are present in optimum proportions and quantity for maintaining the body in perfect state of health, activity and development than the food is called balanced diet.

CARBOHYDRATES

  • Constitutes 3 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  • Daily requirement is 500 gms. 1 gm gives 17 KJ of energy.
  • The carbohydrates of the food eaten, after being processed in the alimentary canal and liver, are supplied to the tissues mainly as glucose, often called blood sugar.
  • Sources: 3 main cereals (wheat, rice and maize), sugar cane, milk, fruits, honey, beet, etc.
  • They are 3 types: Cellulose, Starch and sugar.
  • Structrually, carbohydrates are of 3 types: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
  • Excess carbohydrate is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen.

FATS

  • Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1 gm provides 37 KJ of energy).
  • Acts as the reserve food material because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue.
  • An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Daily requirement: 50 gms.

PROTEINS

  • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.
  • Important for growth and repair of the body.
  • Made up of amino acids.
  • Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are the diseases which occur due to deficiency of protein.

MINERALS

Sr.
no. 
Mineral
MACRO
ELEMENTS
SourcesSigniflcanceEffects of deficiency
1Calcium (Ca)#Milk, cereals, cheese, green vegetablesRequired for formation of teeth and bones, blood clotting, functions of nerves and musclesWeak teeth and bones: retarded body growth
2Phosphorus (P)Milk, meat, cerealsRequired for formation of teeth and bones and acid-base balance: component of ATP, DNA,RNAWeak teeth and bones: retarded body growth and physiology
3Sulphur (S)Many proteins of foodComponent of many amino acidsDisturbed protein metabolism.
4Potassium (K)Meat, milk, cereals, fruits and vegetablesRequired for acid-base balance, water regulation and function of nervesLow blood pressure, weak muscles: risk of paralysis
5Chlorine (C)Table saltRequired for acid-base balance: component of gastric juiceLoss of appetite, muscle cramps
6Sodium (Na)Table saltRequired for acid-base and water balance and nervous functionsLow blood pressure, Loss of appetite: muscle cramps
7Magnesium (Mg)Cereals, green vegetablesCo-factor of many enzymes of glycolysis and a number of other metabolic reactions dependent upon ATPIrregularities of metabolism principally affecting nervous functions
8Iron (Fe)Meat, eggs, cereals, green, vegetablesComponent of haemoglobin and cytochromesAnaemia, weakness and weak immunity
9Iodine (I)Milk, cheese, sea food, iodized saltImportant component thyroxine hormoneGoitre, Cretinism
  • The salt of Ca required by our body is Ca(PO4)2

VITAMINS

Balanced Diet for a human being CLAT Notes | EduRev

Balanced Diet

  • Necessary for normal growth, good health, good vision, proper digestion, etc. They do not provide energy to our body.
  • Vitamins can be divided into two categories.
  • Water-soluble: Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C.
  • Fat-soluble: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.

TYPES OF VITAMINS

Sr.
no.
VitaminChemical NamePropertiesDeficiency Disease
1ARetinolGeneral health giving vitamin, can be stored in liverNight blindness
2B1ThiamineFor growth, carbohydrate metabolism, functioning of heartBeri-Beri
3B2RiboflavinFor keeping skin and mouth healthyCheilosis
4B5NiacinFor healthy skin, sound mental healthPellagra
5B6PyridoxineProcessing of proteins and for nervous systemConvulsions in child
6B12CynacobalaminRequired for formation and maturation of RBCsPernicious anaemia
7CAscorbic AcidFor keeping teeth, gums and joints healthy. Gets destroyed on heatingScurvy
8DCalciferolFor normal bones and teeth, can be stored in liverRickets
9ETocopherolFor normal reproduction, removes scars and wrinklesSterility
10KPhylloquinoneFor normal clotting of bloodHaemophilia

 

WATER

  • Important in digestion, transportation, excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).

ROUGHAGE

  • Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants.
  • Mainly contains cellulose.
  • It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body.
  • One of the common source is Daliya, Which we eat in our homes.
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