Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi

UPSC : Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi.
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Blood

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
  • It is 6.8 litres in man and 500 ml less in woman.
  • 6 - 8% of body weight (pH 7.4)

Constituents :

  • Solid or cellular part called Blood Cells and
  • fluid part called the Blood Plasma.

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)

  •  Also called Erythrocytes, disc - shaped (for increased Surface Area), no nucleus contains a pigment called Haemoglobin, which gives blood its Red Color.
  • Average Man : Amount of Haemoglobin is 14 - 15.6 gm / 100 cc of blood (11 - 14 in woman).
  • RBCs are produced in spleen and liver in foetus and in bone marrow after birth @ 1.2 million/sec.
  • Life of RBC is 120 days after which they are broken down in spleen or liver.
  • Product of breakdown of haemoglobin is a pigment (yellow colour), called bilirubin which is normally disposed off through bile whereas haem transferred to red bone marrow. Retention of bilirubin leads to jaundice.
  • No. of RBCs is 4.5 - 5 million/cubic mm of blood.
  • At high altitude, RBCs increase in number.
  • More : Polycythemia. Less: Anaemia
  • White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)

     

  • Also called Leucocytes, rounded, with a nucleus, far less numerous than RBCs (1 : 400 - 500) (5,000 - 10,000 /cu mm), life 3 – 4 days, soldiers of body's defence system.
  • 2 Types : Granulocytes (Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils) and Agranulocytes (Monocytes, Lymphocytes)
  • Basophils : Take up basic stains. Have an S-shaped nucleus. Secrete an anti - coagulant Heparin, which prevents clots within the blood vessels.
  • Eosinophils or Acidophils : Take up acidic stains. Assists in defence mechanism.
  • Neutrophils : Stain equally well with both acidic and basic dyes. Most numerous of the WBCs (65 - 70%).
  • Monocytes : Largest of all. Very motile.
  • Lymphocytes : 25% of the WBC. Takes part in antigen and antibody formation.
  • Platelets

  • Also called Thrombocytes, formed in bone marrow, about 250,000 / cu mm of blood,
  • life 3 - 7 days, sets off blood clotting.

Plasma (65%)

  • Watery part of blood, clear, yellow fluid.
  • Contains about 90% water, proteins and organic salts.
  • Plasma contains 7% proteins which include Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen.
  • Plasma transports nutrients from the small intestine to the body tissues, and return the waste material to the kidneys, where it is filtered out.
  • The protein in plasma includes antibodies also, to assist in defence mechanism.
  • Regulates pH of blood.
  • Approx. 60% blood is water only.

Lymph

  • Lymph = Blood - RBC, i.e., Plasma + WBC.
  • Lymph forms second circulatory system. It acts as middle man between blood and tissue.
  • All interchanges of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue takes place through lymph only.
  • It has more of lymphocytes as compared to that of blood (Blood has more of neutrophils).
  • Spleen produces lymph. At the same time it also acts as the graveyard of lymph.
  • Spleen is also known by the name of 'Blood Bank' because RBCs, WBCs and Lymph are produced in spleen.
  • It is situated above left kidney behind the stomach.
  • Spleen produces lymph. At the same time it also acts as the graveyard of lymph.
  • Spleen is also known by the name of 'Blood Bank' because RBCs, WBCs and Lymph are produced in spleen.
  • It is situated above left kidney behind the stomach.

Blood Groupings

  • Karl Landsteiner (Australian pathologist). He discovered A, B and O blood groups in 1900.
  • Decastello and Sturle in 1902 discovered AB blood group.
  • ABO system of blood groups is based on antigens and antibodies.
  • Antigens: They are proteins and are found on the surface of RBCs. 

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • Antigens are A and B.
  • Antibodies: They are produced in lymph glands and are present in blood plasma.

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Blood - Notes, Biology, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • Antibodies are a and b.
  • AB: Universal recipient
  • O: Universal donor
  • RH Factor: It is based on Rh antigen.
  • Discovered in 1940 by Landsteiner and A.S. Veiner.
  • It discovered in Rhesus monkey.
  • A person can be Rh+ or Rh-.
  • Rh+ can receive blood from Rh- but no vice - versa.
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