Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80
Q 1. Interpret the concept of 'liberalisation' in the field of the economic sphere during the nineteenth century in Europe. 
Interpret the contribution of the French in the economic development of the Mekong Delta Region.
- The ideology of liberalism is very broad and comprehensive and it became popular in the early 19th century.
- The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber, meaning free.
- Economically, The ideology propagated natural right to Property and stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong delta to increase rice cultivation.Mekong Delta Region
- Used forced labour for the construction of irrigation facilities to improve rice cultivation, built infrastructure and transportation facilities for the export of agricultural produce.
- Infrastructure projects were undertaken to transport goods for trade, movement of the military garrison, and establish control over the entire region.
Q 2. How had hand printing technology introduced in Japan? 
How had the translation process of novels into regional languages helped to spread their popularity?
- Print technology in Japan was started by Buddhist missionaries from China around AD 768-770.
- The Buddhist Diamond Sutra was the oldest Japanese book printed in AD 868. It contained six sheets of texts and woodcut illustrations.
- Picture printing became popular in Japan.
- Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and paper money which made publishing very interesting.
- More and more books were published.
- Libraries and book stores were flooded with hand-printed books on women, flower arrangements, cooking, musical instruments, calculations, daily habits and proper etiquette etc.
- English novels translated into regional Indian languages were initially not very popular as the Indian people could not relate to the stories or characters in those novels.
- People wanted novels that narrated stories close to their own lives and set in their own geographic location.
- Novels became an important piece of literary work that connected cultures, people with more and more novels began to be published, a new readership of novel came to be formed.
- With the increase in literacy rate, more people were interested in reading and buying books.
- Later women, children, workers also became part of the reading culture.
Novels also created a sense of shared community, bringing understanding of different cultures, values.
- Many novels were written in the west that connected the urban people with the plight of rural communities.
Example: Hardy’s Mayor of Casterbridge focused on traditional rural communities and the impact of commercialization and mechanization on the farmers.
Q 3. How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab? 
How is the cement industry responsible for land degradation?
- Water is very important for the growth of plants, but excessive irrigation of field leads to waterlogging of soil.
- Too much water is harmful for crop production because too much water in the soil inhibits the process of germination of seeds.
- It due to the reason that under these conditions the seeds do not get sufficient air to respire, the seeds do not get sufficient air to respire.
- You must have seen that potted plants do not grow well if they are given excess water.
- This is because excess water affects soil aeration and hence plants roots do not grow properly. Thus, Overirrigation is a big problem.
- Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industries generates a heavy amount of dust and releases it in the atmosphere.
- Later on, it settles down in the surrounding areas, affecting infiltration of water and crop cultivation.
Q 4. How can democratic reforms be carried out by political conscious citizens? 
- The best laws are those which make people to carry out democratic reforms.
- The Right to Information Act is a good example of a law that gives the powers to the people to find out what is happening in government and act as watchdogs of democracy.
Q 5. What may be a goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income? 
What may be a goal of prosperous farmer of Punjab?
The development goal for a landless rural labourer would be:
- To be able to manage his basic necessities of life.
- To get more days of work, better wages.
- To be able to live a life with dignity.
- To aspire to own a small piece of land.
Development goals of the prosperous farmers from Punjab are:
- Low price food grains.
- Hardworking and Cheap Labour.
- High prices for their produce.
- Cheap inputs used in agriculture.
Q 6. Distinguish between 'primary' and 'secondary' sectors. 
- The primary sector or the agricultural sector constitutes the backbone of our economy and the major sources of employment.
- Primary activity is involved with the production or extraction of natural resources.
- It involves cultivation of crops, fruits, vegetables, raring of livestock all of which are required for a living.
- The secondary sector involves using natural goods and transforming them into something more valuable by manufacturing.
Q 7. Why do banks or lenders demand collateral against loans? 
Bank ask for collateral while giving loan because of following reasons:
- If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain payment. Reduction of exposure in order to do more business with each other when credit limits are under pressure.
- The loan is secured against the collateral. In the event that the borrower defaults, the creditor takes possession of the asset used as collateral and may sell it to regain some or the entire amount originally loaned to the borrower.
Q 8. How had Napoleonic code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Explain with examples the three barriers that are responsible for economic growth in Vietnam.
- The Civil Code of 1804, known as the Napoleonic Code, were the revolutionary principles of administration.
- It did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- This Code was exported to the regions under French control.
- In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
- Transport and communication systems were improved.
- Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed new-found freedom.
- Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform law, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
There were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam which are given here under:
- High population level in Vietnam.
- Low agricultural productivity.
- Extensive indebtedness among the peasants.
- To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity, it was necessary to carry out land reforms as the Japanese had done in the 1890s. But this could not ensure sufficient employment.
- The French colonialists did little to industrialise Vietnam and in the rural areas, landlordism spread and the standard of living declined.
Q 9. How had the Imperial State in China been the major producer of printed material for a long time? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 =3]
How had novels been easily available to the masses in Europe during the nineteenth century? Explain with examples.
The following can be the cause why China is still regarded to be the pioneer in printing materials:
- The earliest print technique developed in China.
- In this technology, books were printed by rubbing paper against inked wooden blocks.
- It was in vogue for a long time till print technology improved with the use of printed material.
- The imperial state in China was a large bureaucratic system that sponsored the printing technique by way of conducting examination for the recruitment of its personnel.
- This print volume increased every year, which made the Imperial state in China, a major producer of printed material for a long time.
- Novels created a sense of belonging on the basis of one's language.
- They dealt with the life of common people and they were cheap. Various ideas became widespread.
- Novel was such a medium that began to link the whole nation.
- Publishing markets helped in selling and printing novels that were now available to the masses.
Q 10. Describe any three main features of 'Rabi crop season.' [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe any three main features of 'Kharif crop season.'
- Rabi crops are sown from October to December.
- Rabi crops are harvested from April to June.
- Some Rabi crops cultivated are wheat in Punjab, barley in Uttar Pradesh, etc.
- Kharif crops are sown from June to August.
- Harvested in September to October.
- Some Kharif crops cultivated are paddy in Assam, Maize in Andhra Pradesh, etc.
Q 11. "Water scarcity may be an outcome of the large and growing population in India." Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
- Water scarcity is indeed the outcome of the large and growing population. An increase in population puts strain on resources, including water.
- People living in an area require water for their various activities, and more the number of people more consumption.
- Furthermore, wastage and indiscriminate use of water have worsened the condition.
- There is no substitute for potable water. Increasing population depletes groundwater and other water sources.
- An increase in population also augments speedier economic development, straining the water resources further.
- Areas with a high density of population, therefore, witnesses intense waters scarcity. At time, such scarcity drives people to marginal areas, in turn draining water resources in such areas as well.
Q 12. "The assertion of social diversities in a democratic country is very normal and can be healthy." Justify the statement with arguments. 
"Social divisions affect politics." Examine the statement.
- All social differences and diversities do not lead to social divisions.
- Social diversities divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.
- People belonging to different social groups often share differences and similarities and overlook the boundaries of their groups.
Example: Carlos and Smith were similar in one way (both were African-Americans) and were racially very different from Norman, who was a White Australian. But all three were athletes and stood against racial discrimination, thus displaying similarity in their opinions.
- It can happen that two people are from different religions but have the same caste and fell quite close to each other.
- Thus, we all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group. Our identities are different in different contexts.
- Assertion of social diversities in a country need not to be seen as a source of danger because in a democratic country every person and a community has the right to state their views and opinions.
- This is very normal and healthy in a democracy. This allows the less privileged and marginal groups to express their grievances and concerns and can get the government to attend these.
- This only leads to the strengthening of democracy.
- A combination of social divisions and politics can be really dangerous.
- A democracy involves competition among various political parties.
- As their competition tends to divide society, if they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, then it can convert those social divisions into political divisions, which can lead to conflict, violence and even disintegration of the country.
- An example of this is the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.
- However, the combination of social divisions and politics is not always negative.
- The political expression of social divisions allows marginalised and disadvantaged social groups to express their grievances and ask the government to rectify them.
- The system of reservation of seats in Indian legislatures for the socially disadvantaged has allowed such social groups to have an adequate representation in the decision-making process.
Q 13. "Women still lag much behind men in India despite some improvements since independence." Analyse the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
Women are still lagging behind men under certain scenarios in India:
- In political aspects, the role of women is still the lowest in Houses of Parliament and in State legislatures. While in America, England etc., women are given seats in Parliament even though there are male members.
- In India, though there are many organisations fighting for equal participation of women in politics, it has been fulfilled to some extent.
- Only in local governing bodies are women given priority as ward members, councillors, etc.
- In rural areas, female foeticide and female infanticide persist as girl child are considered a burden to family in these areas.
- Child marriage and dowry system is prevalent in some parts of Rajasthan where people are illiterate and marry girls at a young age.
Q 14. How are political parties recognized as regional and national parties in India? Explain with examples.
Conditions for Recognition as a National Party:
- Secures at least 6% of the valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election in any four or more states.
- Has won at least 4 seats in a Lok Sabha general election from any state or states.
- Win at least 2% of the total Lok Sabha seats in a Lok Sabha General Election and these seats have to be won from at least 3 states.
- The party is recognized as a State Party in at least four states.
Conditions for Recognition as a Regional Party:
- Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 2 seats in an Assembly General Election.
- Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 1 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election.
- Win at least 3% of the seats or at least 3 seats, whichever is more, in an Assembly General Election.
- Win at least 1 out of every 25 seats from a state in a Lok Sabha General Election.
- Secure at least 8% of the total valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election.
Q 15. "Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries." Justify the statement. 
- It is true that environmental degradation does not respect national or state boundaries. In other words, we can say that environmental degradation is not confined within a state or a nation.
- It has international and global effects. Its consequences are felt globally and internationally.
Example: If India is creating air pollution by massive thermal power plant or other sources, the neighbouring countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka are affected. It is so because acid rain, climate change does occur due to air pollution, which becomes a transcontinental issue. Similarly, deforestation in Brazil has caused a disturbance in rainfall pattern throughout South America. Land degradation and dam burst in India affect Bangladesh a lot as flood increases and more siltation.
- Environmental degradation is not a nationwide or statewide issue. It is continental and global, which needs precaution and protection of the natural environment.
Q 16. Why is the 'tertiary sector' becoming important in India? Explain any three reasons. 
How do we count various goods and services for calculating the Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.) of a country? Explain with example.
Importance of the tertiary sector:
- The tertiary sector provides basic services like public transportation, medical care, electricity, banking, post office etc. under the control of the govt.
- The tertiary sector creates a huge area for employment, even for uneducated and unskilled workers.
- The tertiary sector distributes consumer goods to different suppliers.
- The tertiary sector accounts for most of the national income and per capita income.
- The various goods and services are counted on the basis of the value of each good or services, not on the basis of actual numbers.
- The value here is referred to the value of final goods and services, not the value of intermediate goods.
- It is understood that the value of final goods already includes the value of all intermediate goods that are used in making the final goods.
- The total production of each sector is calculated by adding the value of all final goods and services of the sector in a year.
- The total production of all the three sectors within a country is known as the Gross domestic product of the country.
Q 17. Describe the importance of formal sources of credit in economic development. [3 × 1 = 3]
Describe the bad effects of informal sources of credit on borrowers.
- Formal sources of credit are beneficial in the sense that they provide credit at reasonable rates without any undue exploitative practices as faced under informal sources of credit.
- For instance, taking credit from informal sources can have serious repercussions in the form of exorbitant rate of interest, high mortgage obligations, etc.
- Formal sources of credit are organised and from such exploitative practices.
- The informal sources of credit are the moneylenders, traders, employers, relatives and friends.
- No external organisations control the credit activities of lenders.
- The rate of interest can be really high as it depends on the wishes of the lender.
- They can also use unfair means to get their money back.
Q 18. How can consumers use their 'Right to Seek Redressal'? Explain with example. 
- It is defined a the right to seek compensation due to damage caused by unfair trade practices and exploitation.
- The compensation awarded depends on the degree of damage. Consumers have the right to get their claims settled in their favour in case of being cheated and exploited by the producers.
- Under the Consumer Protection Act 1986, a three-tier judicial system has been formed. This act provides the establishment of consumer disputes redressal agencies at the district, state and national level.
- Consumers can invoke their right to redress and the right to represent. We may give the example of a person who is dissatisfied with services provided by say MTNL, BSNL, or Airtel and thereafter files a case at the consumer court.
Q 19. Who had organized the Dalits into the 'Depressed Classes Association' in 1930? Describe his achievements.
Define the term 'Civil Disobedience Movement.' Describe the participation of rich and poor peasant communities in the 'Civil Disobedience Movement.'
- B.R Ambedkar sought reservation for Dalits in educational institutions.
- For him, political empowerment was the only way of achieving upliftment for Dalits B.R. Ambedkar and other Dalit leaders demanded separate electorates for the depressed classes in order to protect their interest and extending political power to them. B.R. Ambedkar formed the Depressed Classes
- Association in 1930 and demanded the following:
(i) To bring about political empowerment of the depressed classes.
(ii) To have reserved seats in the educational institutions.
(iii) Demanded separate electorates and bring about social justice.
(iv) He also mooted the idea of reservation for Dalits which brought him in clash with Gandhi.
(v) It was with Ambedkar's constant persuasion which was eventually resolved with the Poona Pact of 1932, which provided for reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislatures for them.
(vi) Ambedkar also launched protest and movement against untouchability.
(vii) He also launched the Kalaram temple movement that sought entry of Dalit in the Brahmin dominated temple.
(viii) He also sought the support of Constituent assembly members for providing reservation to SC's and ST's.
- The Civil Disobedience Movement led by M K Gandhi, in the year 1930 was an important milestone in the history of Indian Nationalism.
- It began with Gandhiji's famous salt march of about 240 miles from Sabarmati ashram in Ahmedabad to the coastal town of Dandi in Gujarat rich peasants the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were active in the movement.
- These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organizing their communities, and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programs.
- For them, the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords.
- As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.
- The rich peasants were greatly affected by the economic depression and the fall in the prices of goods. He wanted a reduction in land revenue. Swaraj for them meant the reduction of taxes. So they participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- The poor peasants, on the other hand, wanted a reduction in rent or revenue. For them, Swaraj meant the reduction of taxes. This was their aim in participation in the movement.
Q 20. "Indian trade had played a crucial role in the late nineteenth-century world economy." Analyze the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
"Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization in India by the early twentieth century." Analyze the statement.
"Industrialization had changed the form of urbanization in the modern period." Analyze the statement with special reference to London.
The role of the Indian economy in the nineteenth-century world economy can be explained as follows:
- India was a major exporter of raw materials to Britain.
- Indian markets were flooded with British manufactured goods.
- There was a trade surplus for Britain while trading with India. So, this trade surplus was used in many ways.
- Not only with Britain, but India also traded with China mainly in opium.
The pattern of industrialization changed in the 20th century due to various reasons. They are:
- The growth of Nationalism in the first decade of the 20th century resulted in Indians shifting towards Swadeshi goods and boycotting foreign goods, especially cloth. Industrialists lobbied and pressurised the government to safeguard their interests through concessions and tariff protection.
- Indian yarn exports to China decreased. So, Indian industries shifted from yarn production to piece-cloth production.
- The World Wars increased the number of Indian industries. During the wars, the mills and factories in Britain were busy producing for the war and imports into India decreased.
- So, Indian industries were now left to supply to the Indian markets. New industries were established.
- With the Second World War and the prolonged war, Indian industries also started supplying for the war.
- For instance, uniforms, bags, leather goods were produced. Industrial production boomed during the Wars.
- After the World Wars, Britain could not compete with emerging economies like the USA and Japan.
- With the collapse of the British economy, Indian exports to Britain also fell.
- The newly established Indian industries now had to look for newer domestic and international markets and consolidate their position.
- Industrialisation in Britain has widely changed the form of urbanisation in the modern period.
- Many rural migrants have been attracted to the industrial cities of Leeds and Manchester with the craze for working in mills and factories.
- As a result, the population of these industrial cities had increased and were mostly occupied by rural migrants.
- Urbanization led to migration and overpopulation and changed the atmosphere of the newly grown industrialised cities.
Q 21. How are industries responsible for environmental degradation in India? Explain with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
The industrialisation has led to environmental degradation in the following ways:
- It led to the clearing of huge patches of land for establishing factories.
- Industries release many poisonous gases like carbon-di-oxide, which cause air pollution.
- Industrial waste is released in the rivers and made unfit for any purpose.
- Lands are cleared out for residential as well as commercial purposes.
Q 22. "Roadways still have an edge over railways in India." Support the statement with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
- Roadways have an edge over the railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.
- The growing importance of road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in the following reasons:
(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(iv) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and a relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(v) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(vi) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and seaports.
Q 23. Compare the situation of Belgium and Sri Lanka considering their location, size and cultural aspects. [1 + 1 + 3 = 5]
How is the idea of power-sharing emerged? Explain different forms that have common arrangements of power-sharing.
- In Sri Lanka and Belgium, there were ethnic conflicts for power on the basis of the language.
- The group being numerically larger were in conflict with the groups lesser in number.
- Both Belgium and Sri Lanka were bothered by the issue of power-sharing.
- However, Belgium worked out an accommodation principle as compared to Sri Lanka which switched to majoritarianism.
- Power-sharing took place in different ways in Belgium and Sri Lanka. Belgium opted for a conciliatory mode of power-sharing through respect and representation for different communities and regions.
- On the other hand, Sri Lanka adopted a confrontational approach where the majority community exerted its dominance over others and refused to share power.
- The first approach led to stronger unity while the later approach undermined the unity of the country and brought untold catastrophe.
- It is true that the idea of power-sharing emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power.
- Traditional, it was believed that power should be concentrated in one hand because if power is divided, then it would be difficult to take rapid decisions and apply them.
- But the development of the concept of democracy has changed this notion of power concentration in one hand.
- This is so because democracy believes in the distribution of power among people as people are the source of authority.
- Power can be divided among the various organs of the government, two sets of the government, that is central and the state, community government etc.
- Moreover, the concentration of power in one hand leads to revolution and war in the long run and breaks the unity of the nation.
- Horizontal distribution of power allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
- Such separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.
- This results in a balance of power among various institutions.
Example: Ministers and Government officials exercise power, they are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies.
- Similarly, judges can check the functioning of the executive or laws made by the legislatures. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.
The different forms that have common arrangements of power-sharing:
- Power shared among governments at the provincial or regional level is called a vertical form of power-sharing.
- Such a general government for the entire country is usually called the federal government. In India, we refer to it as the Central or Union Government.
- The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names in different countries.
- In India, we call them State Governments. State Governments and Central Government have their distinct areas to exercise power.
Q 24. Describe the importance of democratic government as an accountable and legitimate government. [5 × 1 = 5]
It allows for the participation of the people in the political process, it is people's own government thus, it is legitimate:
- It provides for smooth and legitimate transformation from one government to another by means of electoral competition.
- This way it ensures that no government is elected for life and hence becomes tyrannical. It allows for peaceful change in society, by means of elections.
- Representatives so elected make laws and policies on behalf of the people. Democracy produces a government that is responsive through the mechanism of elections.
- Elections make the representatives accountable to people and ensure that they have to explain their decisions. This ensures accountability of the lawmakers towards their constituencies and they have to take into account the interests of all sections of society.
- People have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. This makes the rulers accountable to the people.
Q 25. Why do multinational corporations (MNCs) set up their offices and factories in certain areas only? Explain any five reasons. [5 × 1 = 5]
MNCs are interested to set up their manufacturing units in different areas because:
(i) The labour in developing countries are cheap and easily available.
(ii) There is flexibility in labour laws which made MNC's easier to set up industries here.
(iii) The markets in developing countries are very good for selling products and making huge profits.
(iv) There is available support from the government to make way for Special Economic Zones.
(v) Local companies and manufacturers also cooperate with the MNC's in the process of manufacturing by supplying the required products.
Q 26. (A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them. [1 × 2 = 2]
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The city where the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
(B) Locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India. [1 × 3 = 3]
(i) Kalpakkam – Nuclear Power Plant
(ii) Vijayanagar – Iron and Steel Plant
(iii) Noida – Software Technology Park
(iv) Paradeep – Sea Port
(v) Sardar Sarovar – Dam