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Cause and Effects - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

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Cause and Effects
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Cause and Effects

  • Cause is an event which leads to a said effect and this fact is either scientifically proven or logically expected.
  • Technically cause means a sufficient condition i.e. collection of all necessary conditions in the presence of which the effect must take place.
  • But, practically we mean cause to be the immediate and principal reason behind the effect.
  • An immediate cause means a cause that immediately precedes the effect and a principal cause means a cause that was the most important reason behind the effect.
  • Since cause must occur before the effect, we can merely look at the given two events first and by analyzing the tense thus, we can declare which event can’t be a cause.
  • A complete solution strategy is given in the flow-chart.

Cause and Effects - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT 

TYPE – I 

Directions: Given below are pairs of events A and B. You have to read both the events A & B and decide their nature of relationship. You have to assume that the information given in A and B is true and you will not assume anything beyond the given information in deciding the answer. Mark answer:  

(a) if A is the effect and B its immediate and principal cause.

(b) if A is the immediate and principal cause and B its effect.

(c) if A is an effect but B not its immediate and principal cause

(d) if B is an effect but A not its immediate and principal cause.

(d) None of these

Example 1: 

Event (A): Senior students ragged junior students. 

Event (B): Senior students were suspended.

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Event (A) and (B) are related. Chronologically (A) occurs before (B). Ragging of junior students is the immediate and principle cause for the suspension of the senior students.

Example 2: 

Event (A): India has been categorized as one of the flawed democracies in the world.

Event (B): India is the largest democratic country in the world.

The correct answer is option (e).

Explanation: Being the largest democratic country in the world is not the reason for being categorized as flawed democracy.

Example 3: 

Event (A): Mr. Amitab Bachchan received the best actor award.

Event (B): Mr. Amitab Bach cause of chan is a good actor.

The correct answer is option (e).

Explanation: Here, event (A) could be the cause for event (B) and vice-versa. 

Question for Cause and Effects
Try yourself:Event (A): Mr. X was killed in the floods.

Event (B): It was raining heavily.

Options:

(1) if ‘A’ is the effect and ‘B’ is its immediate and principal cause.
(2) if ‘A’ is the immediate and principal cause and ‘B’ is its effect.
(3) if ‘A’ is an effect but ‘B’ is not its immediate and principal  cause.
(4) if ‘B’ is an effect but ‘A’ is not its immediate and principal  cause.
(5) None of these

View Solution

TYPE – II

Directions (Q. 1-20): Below in each question are given two statements (A) and (B) these statements may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statement. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choices correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. 

Mark answer (a) If statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.

Mark answer (b) If statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.

Mark answer (c) If both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.       

Mark answer (d) If both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.

Mark answer (e) If both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of some common causes.

Example 4: 

I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.

II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

The correct answer is option (e).

Explanation : Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly an increase in the number of thefts in the locality.

Example 5: 

I. Majority of the students in the college expressed their opinion against the college authority's decision to break away from the university and become autonomous.

II. The university authorities have expressed their inability to provide grants to its constituent colleges.

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation :Clearly, the university's decision to refuse grant to the colleges must have triggered the college authority to become autonomous.

Example 6: 

I. The literacy rate in the district has been increasing for the last four years.

II. The district administration has conducted extensive training programme for the workers involved in the literacy drive.

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation : Clearly, the increase in the literacy rate may be attributed directly to the stringent efforts of the district administration in this direction.

Question for Cause and Effects
Try yourself:Two statements I and II are given. These statement may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statements. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choice correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. Mark answer :

I. The school authority has asked the X Std. students to attend special classes to be conducted on Sundays.
II. The parents of the X Std. students have withdrawn their wards from attending private tuitions conducted on Sundays.

View Solution

Question for Cause and Effects
Try yourself:Direction : Two statements I and II are given. These statement may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statements. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choice correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. Mark answer :

I. The Government has imported large quantities of sugar as per trade agreement with other countries.

II. The prices of sugar in the domestic market have fallen sharply in the recent months.

View Solution

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