Cause and Effects CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

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LR : Cause and Effects CLAT Notes | EduRev

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Chapter - 14

Cause and Effects

Cause and Effects CLAT Notes | EduRev

  • Cause is an event which leads to a said effect and this fact is either scientifically proven or logically expected.
  • Technically cause means a sufficient condition i.e. collection of all necessary conditions in the presence of which the effect must take place.
  • But, practically we mean cause to be the immediate and principal reason behind the effect.
  • An immediate cause means a cause that immediately precedes the effect and a principal cause means a cause that was the most important reason behind the effect.
  • Since cause must occur before the effect, we can merely look at the given two events first and by analyzing the tense thus, we can declare which event can’t be a cause.
  • A complete solution strategy is given in the flow-chart.

TYPE – I 

Directions (Q. 1-40): Given below are pairs of events A and B. You have to read both the events A & B and decide their nature of relationship. You have to assume that the information given in A and B is true and you will not assume anything beyond the given information in deciding the answer. Mark answer:  

  1. if A is the effect and B its immediate and principal cause.
  2. if A is the immediate and principal cause and B its effect.
  3. if A is an effect but B not its immediate and principal cause
  4. if B is an effect but A not its immediate and principal cause.
  5. None of these

1. Event (A): The people of state X have claimed that vegetables like parwal and kakora are treated with malachite green to make them look fresh.

Event (B): The officials of Food Adulteration Department has started collecting samples of vegetables from suspicious places in state X.

2. Event (A): According to an NGO report, there are high levels of pesticides in Coca Cola, Pepsi, and other aerated drinks.

Event (B): Members of Parliament have demanded for a ban on the supply of aerated drinks in the Parliament.

3. Event (A): The attack by militants on Parliament in Dec 2001 haunts our parliamentarians whenever militants attack any target in the country.

Event (B): New parking labels have been introduced for the members of Parliament, aimed at strengthening the security of the Indian Parliament and the parliamentarians.

4. Event (A): Growth of GDP forecasts of India have been lowered by NCAER, IMF and RBI recently.

Event (B): In India, drought has ravaged several crops and the government finances are under stress.

5. Event (A): A rich smell of recovery is spreading across several sectors of the economy, raising hopes of a boom in employment and incomes in India.

Event (B): India never slid into a recession in the past ten years.

6. Event (A): Reserve Bank of India (RBI) cut the bank rate recently.

Event (B): Today, State Bank of India further reduced the lending rates.

7. Event (A): Over the years, the breed of independent film-makers has been growing steadily and while they have managed to give voice to the voiceless, their films do not reach the discerning audiences.

Event (B): The MLF Co, an NGO, has decided to step in by setting up a national distribution centre for socially relevant films.

8. Event (A): Women have achieved parity with men in obtaining four-year college degrees and are more likely to work in managerial and professional careers today than 20 years ago.

Event (B): The new high-tech economy is leaving women behind men.

9. Event (A): India is today gearing to become a leading producer and exporter of a range of minerals.

Event (B): India is endowed with rich mineral resources.

10. Event (A): Parliament gave nod to Tobacco Control Bill last week prohibiting smoking in public places.

Event (B): Non-smokers no longer have to be victims of passive smoking.

11. Event (A): Private power Distribution Company BSES has registered 1398 cases of power theft in January-March 2004 in the city X.

Event (B): Power cuts have been continuous in the month of May 2004 in the city X.

12. Event (A): Last week as big foreign company bought the largest BPO Company of India against the will of the chairman.

Event (B): The chairman of the largest BPO Company has resigned recently.

13. Event (A): Touchtel is going to announce a 16.7% drop in ISD and STD rates from the next week.

Event (B): BSNL has introduced a cut in its ISD and STD rates recently.

14. Event (A): There is a thaw in the relationship of India and Pakistan.

Event (B): India is playing cricket in Pakistan after a long time.

15. Event (A): The country ‘X’ has been turned into a battlefield.

Event (B): For establishing a puppet government and getting indirect control over rich oilfields the country ‘Y’ is crushing the citizen of the country ‘X’.

16. Event (A): Arab countries have censored the Bush Government for its Iraq policy and demanded an explanation for the cruel act of its soldiers.

Event (B): American soldiers have been found abusing Iraqi prisoners at Aba Gharaib.

17. Event (A): Mr X took two wickets of Zimbabwe to become the world record-holder as the highest wicket-taker.

Event (B): The country Y defeated Zimbabwe in a recent Test match by an innings and 240 runs.

18. Event (A): On April 26, the exit poll by a reputed news channel forecast a hung parliament.

Event (B): Sensex fell 213 points on April 27.

19. Event (A): The Prime Minister of India visited China last year.

Event (B): China has conceded Sikkim as a part of India in its official map.

20. Event (A): The relationship of Pakistan with its age-old enemy – India has improved.

Event (B): Pakistan has reduced the strength of its army by 50000.

21. Event (A): The national selectors have decided to retain the same 14 for the third and final test of the series against New Zealand.

Event (B): India has won the second test against New Zealand.

22. Event (A): Since Rani’s own child had died at birth, she was desperate for another.

Event (B): Rani quietly kidnapped the child, less than two days old, and shipped out of the hospital.

23. Event (A): The number of rape cases is highest in Delhi in the country.

Event (B): Delhi has the highest degree of social isolation in the country.

24. Event (A): The new government has ordered a major reshuffle in the top echelons of bureaucracy.

Event (B): Only two days before, the new coalition government took over.

25. Event (A): The finance ministry has imposed additional taxation.

Event (B): The fiscal deficit of the country has been reduced.

26. Event (A): The RBI slashed the cash reserve ratio (CRR) of banks by one percentage point to 9 per cent.

Event (B): Rs 7,000 cr was released into the system.

27. Event (A): A Kerala High Court order has banished smokers from all public places.

Event (B): Nayar has stopped smoking at home.

28. Event (A): Irate villagers set ablaze the engine of a passenger train and vandalized railway property.

Event (B): A youth from the village was thrown out of a train.

29. Event (A): Full security was provided to the Pope during his visit to India.

Event (B): The Pope led a high-power delegation to discuss ties between Vatican and India.

30. Event (A): After long years of wait, the capital got its metro last year.

Event (B): Pollution level in the capital have come down.

31. Event (A): Govt. has tightened security checks at all important places and also at various public places.  

Event (B): Incidences of terrorist attacks are increasing day by day.

32. Event (A): The govt has decided to sell 26 per cent equity in Indian Airlines this year.

Event (B): The govt has decided to float a global tender to elicit response from investors.

33. Event (A): The net NPAs of the SBI significantly lowered to 6.41% at the end of Mar 2000.

Event (B): There were higher recoveries by the SBI and growth in its level of advances in 1999-2000.

34. Event (A): Private telecom operators have started functioning in our country.

Event (B): The department of Telecom Services (DTS) is being corporatised from Oct. 1. 2000.

35. Event (A): There was a bloodbath in the Kashmir valley.

Event (B): India played against Pakistan in the Sahara Cup.

36. Event (A): Prices of gold have gone up in the local market.

Event (B): India has won several prizes in design of gold ornaments.

37. Events (A): Today, the Prime Ministers of country ‘P’ and ‘Q’ have decided to take steps to improve the bilateral relations.

Events (B): Next week a committee of Foreign Ministers and Senior Officers of country ‘P’ and ‘Q’ will work out further steps to improve the relationship.

38. Event (A): Recently the prices of the personal computers (PCs) have come down.

Event (B): Some school children are showing keen interest in learning computers.

39. Event (A): This year Bank ‘M’ has celebrated its silver jubilee.

Event (B): More customers are getting attracted to the market branch of Bank M.

40. Event (A): Recently the traffic jams on M G Road of city ‘Z’ are not only reduced but the traffic has also become manageable.

Event (B): The flyover on M G Road of city ‘Z’ has recently been made operational and the number of traffic police personnel has been increased.

TYPE – II

Directions (Q. 1-20): Below in each question are given two statements (A) and (B) these statements may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statement. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choices correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. 

Mark answer (1) If statement (A) is the cause and statement (B) is its effect.

Mark answer (2) If statement (B) is the cause and statement (A) is its effect.

Mark answer (3) If both the statements (A) and (B) are independent causes.       

Mark answer (4) If both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of independent causes.

Mark answer (5) If both the statements (A) and (B) are effects of some common causes.

1.Event (A): Govt. has decided to distribute part of the foodgrain stock though public distribution system to people below poverty line.
Event (B): There has been bumper kharif crop for the last two seasons.

2. Event (A): Last week MTNL changed its telephone numbers from seven to eight digits.
Event (B): MTNL has again made changes in its billing cycle by extending payment dates for bills.

3. Event (A): The prices of fruits have dropped substantially during the last few days.
Event (B): The prices of foodgrains have increased substantially during the last few days.

4. Event (A): The road traffic between the two towns in the state has been disrupted since last week.
Event (B): The rail traffic between the two towns in the state has been disrupted since last week.

5. Event (A): Heavy showers are expected in the city area during the next forty eight hours.
Event (B): The inter-club cricket tournament scheduled for the week was called off.
6. Event (A): There has been mass recruitment of IT professionals by Indian IT companies
Event (B): Many developed countries are increasingly outsourcing IT related functions to India and China.

7. Event (A): Many farmers have given up jute cultivation as it is no longer economically viable.
Event (B): The textile ministry has proposed a hike in the minimum support price of jute.

8. Event (A): Miss world contestants flew out of Nigeria.
Event (B): A riot broke out in the capital of Nigeria when some people of a particular community became rampant against the dissemination of western culture in the capital.

9. Event (A) The government is considering the possibility of involving private sector companies in highway constructions projects.
Event (B): The implementation of many highway projects undertaken by government agencies is behind schedule in various states.

10. Event (A): The price of aircraft fuel has risen during the past few months.
Event (B): Many passenger airlines in India have been  forced to cut their air fares by about 10 percent. .

11. Event (A): This year the cut-off percentages for admission to junior colleges have increased over the last year.
Event (B): This year performance of students in Xth final exam was considerably higher than the previous year.

12. Event (A): The conditions of most of the national highways are very bad.
Event (B): Govt. has now sanctioned a huge amount of money to maintain the national highways.

13. Event (A): Many students of the local school leave failed in English languages paper in the annual examination.

Event (B): Many students of the local school have failed in mathematics paper in the annual examination.

14. Event (A). Rain and thunder showers bashed the city during the past three days.
Event (B): Many people stayed indoor during the past three days.

15. Event (A): There has been a considerable increase in the sale of fat-free food articles.
Event (B): Now people have become more conscious about their health condition and food habits.

16. Event (A): The prices of vegetable have increased considerably during the past few weeks.
Event (B): Consumer Price Index at the end of previous week was increased by 2 percent.

17. Event (A) Many employees of the company proceeded on leave on Friday.
Event (B): Both Thursday and Saturday were declared holiday by the company.

18. Event (A). Many anti social elements are caught by the police from the locality.
Event (B): Many people in the locality are detained by the police for questioning.

19. Event (A): Many pilgrims used Govt. transport to travel to the holy shrine.
Event (B): The cost of travel by private transport is very high.

20. Event (A):  There have been heavy rains in the catchments area of the lakes supplying drinking water to the city.
Event (B): The municipal authority has suspended the proposed cut in water supply to the city. 

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