Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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CHANGES  IN ADMINISTRATIVE  STRUCTURE
Introduction

  • Overhauling of the administration of Bengal and foundation of a new system based on English pattern under Warren Hastings and Cornwallis. Three pillars of British administration in India-Civil Service, Army and Police.

Civil Service

  • Failure of the attempts of Clive and Warren Hastings to put an end to corruption among officials.
  • Introduction of Civil Service by Cornwallis and his reforms to purify and improve administration.
  • Establishment of the College at Fort William in Calcutta by Wellesley to train the young Civil Servants, and its replacement by East India College at Haileybury in England.
  • Discontinuation of the practice of appointing civil servants by the Court of Directors and starting of the practice of selecting civil servants through a competitive exam with the passing of the Charter Act of 1853.
  • A special feature of Indian Civil Service was the exclusion of Indians from it.

Reasons

  • The belief that an administration based on British model could be firmly established only by English personnel.
  • Lack of trust in the ability and integrity of the Indians.
  • A deliberate policy-because the task of establishing and consolidating British rule in India could not be left to Indians .
  • The desire of the influential class of British society to preserve the lucrative posts in civil service for their sons.
  • However, Indians were recruited in large numbers to fill subordinate posts as they were cheaper and much more readily available than Englishmen. 
    Question:

    Who introduced civil services in India?

Army

  • An instrument to conquer Indian powers.
  • Defence of British empire in India from foreign rivals.
    Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev
  • Safeguarding the British supremacy from the threat of internal revolt.
  • Employment of large number of Indians as soldiers and appointment of only British as officers as a counter_ weight .

Police

  • Relieving the zamindars of their police functions and establishment of a regular police force to maintain law and order by Cornwallis.
  • Modernising the old indian system of thanas or circles headed by a Daroga and creation of the post of District Superintendent of Police later.
Labour and Trade Union Organisations
Organisations Founder, Year & Place
  • Bombay Mill and Millhands − N.M. Lokhande, 1880, Bombay  Association
  • Working men's club Sasipada Banerjee, 1870, Calcutta
  • Printer's Union 1905, Calcutta
  • Railway men's Union 1906, Calcutta
  • Kamgar Hitwardhak Sabha 1909, Bombay, S.K. Bole
  • Social Service League 1911, Bombay
  • Madras Labour Union G. Ramajaulu Naidu and Chalapathi, 1918, Madras.
  • Amalgamated society of Railway 1897, Calcutta servants of India
  • Ahmedabad Textile Labour Gandhiji, 1920, Ahmedabad Association
  • All India Trade Union Congress N.M. Joshi & Roy Choudhary, 1920, Bombay. President (aituc) by Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Bombay Textile Labour Union N.M. Joshi Bombay.
  • All India Trade Union Federation N.M. Joshi, 1929 (AITUF)
  • National Federation of Trade Union N.M. Joshi (NFTU)
  • Hindustan Majdoor Sabha Vallabhabhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, Kriplani 1938
  • Indian Federation of Labour N.M. Roy, 1944
  • Indian National Trade Union Vallabhbhai Patel, 1944 Congress (INTUC)
  • Jamshedpur Labour Association S.N. Haldar, Recognised under C.F. Andrews in 1925.
  • Exclusion of Indians from all officer’s posts.
  • Reduction of major crimes, such as decoities, suppression of ‘thuggee’, prevention of the organisation of large scale conspiracy against foreign control were its achievements.

CHANGES  IN  POLICIES
Judicial Policy

  • Laying the foundation of a new judicial system by Warren Hastings and Cornwallis

Civil CourtsChanges In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev

Old Vintage - High Court, Bombay

  • Subordinate courts (headed by Indian Judges known as Munsifs and Amins).
  • Registrars Courts (headed by Englishmen).
  • 4 Provincial Courts of Civil Appeal.
  • Sadar Diwani Adalat.

Criminal Courts

  • Subordinate Courts presided by Indian magistrates.
  • 4 Courts of Circuit presided over by Civil Servants.
  • Sadar Nizamat Adalat
Important Battles
  • Battle of Khed (1707) Sahu defeated Tara Bai
  • Battle of Palkhed (1728) Baji Rai I defeated the Nizam (Nizam -ul - Mulk)
  • Battle of Bhopal (1737) Baji Rao I defeated the Nizam
  • Battle of Udaipur (1760) Marathas defeated the Nizams
  • Third Battle of Panipat (1761) Ahmed Shah Abadli defeated the Marathas
  • Battle of Manihari (1756) Siraj-ud-daulah defeated his rival Saukat Jang
  • Battle of Plassey (June 1757) The English defeated Siraj-ud-daulah
  • Battle of Bidira (Nov. 1759) The English defeated the Dutch
  • Battle of Buxar (Oct. 1764) The English defeated the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja Ud-daulh and Shah Alam II
  • First Anglo-Mysore war (1766-69) Fought between Haider Ali and the English Finally peace was restored
  • Battle of Chiukunali (1771) The Marathas defeated Haider Ali
  • Second Anglo Mysore war (1780-84) Fought between the English and Haider Ali later carried on by Tipu Sultan
  • Third Anglo-Mysore war (1789-92) The English defeated Tipu Sultan
  • Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) The English defeated Tipu Sultan
  • First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) The English defeated the Sikhs
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) The English defeated the Sikhs and finally annexed Punjab
  • Battle of Gujarat (1849) The English defeated the Sikhs
  • Battle of Shakrakhed (1724) The Nizam defeated Mubariz Khan

Bentinck’s Reforms

Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev

Lord William Bentinck
  • Abolition of the Provincial Courts of Appeal and Circuit and assignment of their work to Commissioners and later to District Judges and Collectors .
  • Raising the status and powers of Indians in the judicial service.
  • Establishment of High Courts by Lord John Lawrence at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1865 to replace the Sadar Courts of Diwani and Nizamat.
  • Codification of Indian laws by a Law Commission headed by Lord Macaulay - The Charter Act of 1833 conferred law-making powers on the Governor-General-in-Council. Thus, the British established a new system of laws through the process of enactment and codification of old laws.
  • Introduction of the Rule of Law, i.e., administration in accordance of law.
  • Introduction of Equality before Law, which meant that in the eyes of law all men are equal

Social Policy

  • Till 1813 the British followed a policy on non-interference in the religious, social and cultural life of the country, but after 1813 they took active steps to transform Indian society and culture.
  • Rise of new ideas and new interests in Britain during the 19th century, which ushered in the second stage of colonialism, which in the turn required partial transformation and modernisation of Indian society.
  • Pressure from the radicals in Britain to introduce modern Western sciences, philosophy and literature to remove the evils in Indian society.
  • The policy of modernising Indian society and culture was also encouraged by Christian missionaries and religious-minded persons, who wanted to spread Christiantiy in India.
  • Pressure of Indians like Rammohan Roy and other like-minded Indians, who were sick of caste prejudices and other social evils and who believed that the salvation of India lay in science and humanism.
  • But the British Government followed a policy of only partial transformation, and gradual and cautious modernisation of Indian society.
Books, Journals & News Papers
  • Aurobindo — Bhawani Mandir, New Lamps for Old, Doctrine of Passive Resistance, Bande Mataram. 
  • Ambika Charan Mazumdar — Indian National Evolution Annie Besant — New India, and Commonweal
  • B.C. Horniman — Bombay Chronicle.
  • Bipin Chndra Pal — New India
  • Brahmobandhab Upadhyaya — Sandhya and Yugantar
  • Behramji Malabari — Notes
  • Bibhuti Bhushan Banerji — Pather Panchali
  • Bamkim Chandra Chatterji — Ananda Math
  • Curzon — Problems of the East
  • C.V. Raman Pillai — Martanda Verma
  • C.F. Andrews & Girija Mukherji — Rise and Growth of Congress of India
  • Chander Mohan — Indu Lekha
  • Dange — The Socialist, Gandhi versus Lenin
  • Dadabhai Naoroji — Poverty and Un-British Rule in India
  • Dinshaw Wacha — Shells from the Sand of Bombay
  • Din Bandhu Mitra — Nil Darpan
  • Evr Naicker Periyar — Kudi Arasu
  • Jawahar Lal Nehru — Soviet Russia, Whither India, Discovery of India
  • Jyotibha Phule — Ghulam Giri
  • J.P. Narayan — To All Fighters of Freedom, Why Socialism
  • Khan Abdul Gafar Khan — Pakhtun
  • K. Ramakrishna Pillai — Swadeshabhimani
  • Lala Harkrishan Lal — Tribune
  • Lala Lajpat Rai — The people, The Punjabi, Bande Mataram, Young India, Unhappy India
  • Gandhi — Hind Swaraj, My Experiments with Truth, the Harijan
  • G.G. Agarkar — Co-edited with Tilak the Kesari and Maratha, and edited Sudharak

Reasons for this kind of policy

  • While British interests in India would not be served without some modernisation, full modernisation would generate forces which would go against their interests and would in the long run endanger British supremacy in the country.
  • Continuous prevalence of the conservative outlook among the British officials in India, who though realised the necessity of introducing some western ideas and practices into India, favoured social stability above all hence opposed any programme of rapid modernisation.
Books, Journals & News Papers
  • Goverdhan Ram — SaraswatiChandra
  • Hunter — Indian Mussalmans
  • Harish Chandra Mukherji — Hindoo Patriot
  • Henry Cotton — New India
  • Indulal Yagnik — Kisan Bulletin
  • Montague — Indian Dairy
  • M.N. Roy & Ambani Mukherjee — Indian Transition
  • Mukund Rao Patil — Din Mitra
  • M.S. Golwalkar — We
  • Mohammed Ali — Comrade
  • Maulana Azad — India Wins Freedom, Al Hilal
  • Muzaffar Ahmad — Navayug
  • Monstrut Elphinstone — History of India
  • Nazrul Islam — Langal (along with Muzafar Ahmad)
  • Madame Cama — Vande Mataram (Paris)
  • M.N. Lakhaday — Din Bandhu
  • Michael Madhusudan Dutt — Meghrabadh
  • Pandit Ramnarayan — Ratnavali, Kulin Kula, Sarvasa
  • Rabindra Nath Tagore — Gore, Ghari Baire, Letters from Russia
  • R.C. Dutt — Peasantry of bengal, Economic History of India
  • R.P. Dutt — India Today
  • Sachin Sanyal — Bandi Jiban
  • Satish Chandra Mukherji — Dawn
  • Surendra Nath Banerji — Bengali
  • Shyamji Krishna Verma — Indian Sociologist
  • Sasipada Banerji — Bharat Shramjeevi
  • Sachidanand Sinha — Indian People
  • Subhas Chandra Bose — The Indian Struggle
  • Singaravelu — Labour Kisan Gazette
  • Vivekananda — Karma yoga, Rajyoga, Bhakti Yoga
  • W.C. Banerjee — Indian Politics
  • Zafar Ali Khan — Zamindar

Thus all the British people, whether conservatives or radicals desired most of all the safety and perpetuation of British rule in India. Every other consideration was of a :secondary importance. As a matter of fact, the policy of modernisation was gradually abandoned after 1858 as Indian proved to be opt pupils. 

Humanitarian Measures

  • Abolition of sati by Bentinck in 1829.
    Changes In Administrative Structure - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev
Sati - A Banned Funeral Custom in India
  • Prohibition of female infanticide by Bentinck and Hardinge.
  • Prohibition of human sacrifice by Hardinge.
  • Passage of the Widow’s Remarriage Act by Dalhousie in 1856.
    Question:

    Gandhiji wasn’t associated with which of the following?

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