Chapter 1. Biologists and Their Contribution; Classification of Animals - Biology, Civil Services UPSC Notes | EduRev

RAS RPSC Prelims Preparation - Notes, Study Material & Tests

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Biologists & Their Contribution

 

 

1.

 

Coined the term ‘cell’

 

Robert Hooke

 

 

 

 

2.

 

Binomial nomenclature

 

Carolus Linnaeus

 

 

 

 

3.

 

One gene one enzyme hypthesis

 

Beadle & Tatum

 

 

 

 

4.

 

Operon Concept

 

Jacob & Monod

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Jumping Genes concept

 

Dr. McClintock

 

 

 

 

6.

 

Human Blood Groups

 

Karl Landsteiner

 

 

 

 

7.

 

Fluid Mosaic Model

 

Singer & Nicholson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification of Animals

 

 

 

              Types of Invertebrates

 

 

 

Placozoa

 

Single species identified as Trichoplax adherens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Porifera

 

Sponges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coelenterata

Coral, hydra, jellyfish, Portuguese man-of-war, sea anemone

(cnidaria)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Platyhelminthes

Flatworms, flukes, tapeworms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nematoda or

Ascarids, vinegar eels, cyst nematodes, Pinworms, roundworms hookworms

Aschelminthes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annelida

 

Lugworms, earthworms, leeches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arthropoda

Crustaceans: prawn, shrimp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insects: butterfly, housefly, mosquito, cockroach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arachnids: Scorpion, wolf spider, King Crab

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Myriapods: Centipede, Millipede

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mollusca

 

Chitons, oysters, snails, clams, squid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Echinodermata

Star fish, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chordata

 

Divided into Hemichordata (tongue worm), Urochordata, Cephalanchordata,

 

 

 

 

 

Gnathastomata.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Types of Vertebrates

 

 

 

 

Jawless fishes (Agnatha)

Hagfish, lamprey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cartilaginous fishes

 

Sharks, skates, rays, chimaeras

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bony fishes

 

Sturgeon, herring, salmon, perch, cod, coelacanth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amphibians

 

Frogs and toads, salamanders, newts, caecilians

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reptiles

 

Snakes, crocodiles, alligators, lizards, turtles, tortoises

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birds (Aves)

 

Penguin, flamingo, eagle, turkey, thrush, parrot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mammals

 

Platypus, kangaroo, bat, lion, wolf, mouse, seal, antelope, cow, dolphin,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

whale, lemur, monkey, ape, human

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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