1. Introduction : (i) Human beings along with living organisms - A complex web of ecological system
(ii) Bio-diversity rich in wildlife and cultivated species.
2. Flora and Fauna in India : (i) India one of the richest countries in terms of biological diversity
(ii) 81,000 species of fauna, 47,000 species of flora
(iii) Some threatened and some on the verge of extinction
(iv) Vanishing forests
(v) Various species - Normal, endangered vulnerable, rare, endemic, extinct species
(vi) Asiatic cheetah - Nearly extinct; declared extinct in 1952.
3. Causes for Depletion of Flora and Fauna : (i) Colonial period, railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry
(ii) After independence - agricultural expansion, shifting cultivation, large scale projects, mining, grazing, fuel wood collection
(iii) Himalayan yew in danger
(iv) More causes - Habital destruction hunting, poaching, over exploitation etc.
(v) Destruction of forests - A biological issue as well as loss of cultural diversity - forest- dependent communities, women and to bring water from far away places and negligence of children, drought etc. So forests and wildlife vital for quality of life.
4. Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India : (i) Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972
(ii) List of All India list of protected species
(iii) National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries
(iv) Several projects such as Project Tiger
(v) Legal protection to black buck, the great Indian bustard etc.
(vi) 39 Tiger reserves
(vii) Conservation projects and focus on biodiversity
(viii) More conservation measures and notification under Wildlife Act of 1980
(ix) 1991 - Addition of plants too.
5. Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources : (i) Reserved Forests, Protected Forests
(ii) Unclassed Forests - Madhya Pradesh - largest area under permanent forests
(iii) Community and conservation -
(a) Local community - Sariska Tiger Reserve - Villagers against mining and Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’
(b) Mundas and Santhals and worship of Mahua
(c) Chipko Movement, Beej Bachao Andolan (Tehri)
(d) Joint Forest Management.