REBELS AND THE RAJ
Rebels and the Raj – The revolt of 1857 and its representation Pattern of Rebellion - People from different walks of life plunged into the revolt – due to their hatred against the oppressive policies of the British Centres of the Revolt – Lucknow, Kanpur, Barrelly, Meerut, Arrah in Bihar.
Leaders – Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, nana Saheb, Kunwar Singh, Bakt Khan, Begum Hazret Mehals, Tatya tope.
Awadh revolt – direct annexation policy of Dalhousie – 1856. Hatred provoked – dispossessed taluqdars of Awadh , Injustice done to Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh
embittered the people.
Revolt of the sepoys : 1) Policy of social superiority of British
2) Interference in religious matters – greased cartridges issues.
The vision of unity : 1) Hindu Muslim unity
2) Search for alternative powers
3) Rebels established parallel administration, in Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur after capturing centres of British power. Later they failed.
British policy of repression.
Repression – 1857 – North India was brought under strict law to prolonged attacked of British – one from Calcutta to North India, another from Punjab to recover Delhi,
27000 Muslims hanged.
Image of the Revolt – Pictorial images produced by British and Indians – posters and cartoons.
The performance of terror : 1) Execution of rebels
Nationalist imageries: 1) Inspiration to nationalists Celebration as first war of Independence – leaders depicted as heroic figures.
Very short Questions (02 marks each)
Q1. Which Governor-Genreral introduced the Subsidary Alliance ?Name the four major powers accepting it. (2)
Ans. Subsidary alliance was introduced by Lord Wliesley. Hyderabad, Awadh, Mysore, Tanjore, Surat, etc were the four major powers who accepted it.
Q2. Which English lady defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur? (2)
Ans. Miss Wheeler defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur.
Q3. Who was the last Nawab of Awadh? Where was he sent on Pension? (2)
Ans. Wajid Ali Shah was last Nawab of Awadh. He was sent to Calcutta on pension.
Short Questions (05 marks each)
Q4. What were the policies and administrative causes of the Revolt of 1857? (5)
Ans. (a) Imperialist policy of the British administrators.
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
(c) Abolition of pensions and Titles.
(d) Disrespect to the Mughal Emperor.
(e) Annexation of Awadh
(f)Misuse of Subsidiary alliance.
Q5. What were the causes of the failure of the 1857 Revolt? (5)
Ans. (a) Breaking out before of the fixed date.
(b) Co-operation of the native states to the British.
(c) Lack of co-operation from the Elite.
(d) Limited resources of the Rebels.
(e)Absence of a common ideal.
(f) Diplomacy of the British.
Q6. Discuess the nature of revolt of 1857 (5)
Ans. (a) Only a Sepoy mutiny –
(b) First war of Independence – Lakhs of artisans, farmers and soldiers struggled united against the British rule.
(c) Hindu and Muslim took actively part in the movement.
(d) The masses took active part in the struggle against the British at almost all centres of uprisings.
(e) It had country wide presence.
Long Questions (10 marks each)
Q7. What were the social, economical religious and military causes of 1857 revolt? (10)
Ans. Economic Causes :- (a) Drain of wealth
(b) Destruction of Indian industries, trade & commerce.
(c) Exorbitant rate of land revenue.
(d) Resumption of Inami or rent-free lands.
(e) Unemployment and poverty among the masses.
Social Causes :- (a) Maltreatment of the Indians.
(b) Interference in the social life of Indians.
(c) Spread of Western Education.
(d) propagation of Christianity.
Military Causes :-(a) Unrest among the Indian soldiers.
(b) Increase ratio of Indian soldiers.
(c) faulty distribution of troops.
(d) General Service Enlistment Act.
(e) Greased cartridges.
Q.8 How were the lives of forest dwellers transformed in the 16th-17th centuries. (10)
Ans :-1.The business encouraged forest clearance zamindars and jotedars turned uninitiated lands in to rice fields to the British, extension of settled agriculture why necessary to enlarge the sources of land revenue. produce crops for export and establish the basis of a settled, ordered society.
2. The British saw forest people as savage impurely and primitive and difficult to govern, so they felt that the forest had to be leaped settled agriculture established and forest people dammed civilized and persuaded to give up hunting and take to plough agriculture.
3.in the 1770s the British embarked on a brutal policy to extermination, hunting the Paharias down and killing them then by 1780s,augustas Cleveland the collector of Bhagalpur purposed a policy of polification. The Paharias chief were given an annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of their man.
4.Some Paharia chief refused the complains continued, the Paharias withdraw deep into the mountains insulting themselves from Lositle forces and carrying on a war with the outbiddersso when Buchanan travelled through the region in the winter of 1880/1881,the Paharia naturally viewed him with suspicion and distrust.
5.The Santhals themselves were powering into area, cleaning forest, cutting down timber, ploughing land and growing rice and cotton,this leades why Sindhus Manjhi.
Q9. What explains the anger of the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders? (10)
1. By 1830s prices of agricultural products fell sharply.
2.Decline in peasants income revenue could rarely be paid without a loan from money lenders.
3.Ryots found difficult to pay it back, debt mounted.
4.Ryots needed more loan to buy their everyday needs.
5. Sahukar’s export merchants in Maharashtra stopped long term credit and started demanding repayment of debt.
6. Petition after petition, Ryots complained of the injustice of insensitiveness and the violation of custom.
7. The Ryots came to see the money lenders as devious and deceitful.
8. Limitation law was passed to check the accumulation of interest overtime.
9. Deeds and bonds appeared as symbols of the new oppressive system.
10. Source based Questions :-
Read the following passage and answer the following questions given below: (8)
We get significant information from Azamgarh proclmattion. 25 Aug, 8157 as to what the rebels wanted.
Section III. Regarding Public servants
It is not a secret things, that under the British Government, native employed in the civil and military service have little respect, low pay and no manner of influence; and all he post of dignity and emolument in both the departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen …. Therefore, all the native in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and adjuring their loyalty to the English side with the Badshahi Government and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees for the present, and be entitled to high post in the future…… Section IV – Regarding Artisans. It is entitled that the Europeans, by the introduction of English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, etc., out of employ, and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary. But under the BadshahiGovernment the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity therefore, these artisans ought to renounce the English Service.
Q1. How did the introduction of English affect the artisans? (2)
Ans. The Artisans were deprived of their employment. The cheap machine-made goods of Britain captured the Indian markets. Consequently, the every description of native artisan was reduced to beggary.
Q2. How would the condition of the artisan improve under the Badshahi Government? (2)
Ans. Under the Badshahi Government, the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas and the rich.
Q3. Why were the public servants dissatisfied with the British Government? (2)
Ans. Under the British government, natives employed in the civil and military service had no respect. Their salaries were low and they had no power or influence.
Q4. What did the rebel proclamation repeatedly appeal for? (2)
Ans. The rebel proclamation repeatedly appealed that the Indians should take care of their religion and interests and they should take care of their religion and interests and they should side with the Badshahi