Chapter Notes - Theme 6 - Bhakti-Sufi Traditions, Class 12, History | EduRev Notes

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Theme 6 - Bhakti-Sufi Traditions, Class 12, History | EduRev Notes

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BHAKTI-SUFI TRADITIONS
 CHANGES IN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND DEVOTIONAL TEXTS (08th TO 18th CENTURY)

Key concepts in a nutshell

  • From 8th to 18th-century striking feature was the visibility of a wide range of gods & goddesses in sculpture & text.
  • There was the integration of cults – composition, compilation & presentation of Puranic texts in simple Sanskrit verses.
  • Tantric forms of worship – more prevalent among women.
  • Bhakti traditions classified into saguna (with atheist) and nirguna (without from attracts worship of abstract form)
  • The Alvars and Narayanars of Tamilnadu – The worshippers of Vishnu and Nayanars –devotees of Shiva – common features – traveled singing hymns in Tamil.

Chapter Notes - Theme 6 - Bhakti-Sufi Traditions, Class 12, History | EduRev Notes

  • Alvars & nayanars initiated a movement against caste system & dominance of Brahamans. Nalayiradivyaprabandanam – important composition of Alvars equal to four Vedas.
  • Status of women – composition of Andal (women Alvar) popular, songs of Karaikkal Ammaiyar – were widely sung.
  • State patronage in the south for Vedic gods rather than Jainism & Buddhisn, Cholas patronized Brahmanical tradition, making a land grant as to lord Shiva at Gangaikonda Cholapuram bronze sculpture of shiva.
  • Singing of hymns under royal patronage were encountered – Chola ruler Parantaka I consecrated metal image of Appan, Sambandan, and sundarar in Shiva temples.
  • Karnataka saw a new movement under basavanna a brahmana in the court of Chalukyan ruler – his followers Virashaivas (heroes of Shiva) or Lingayatd (wearers of Linga) –  important community to this day – who worship Shiva in form of a linga.
  • Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and questions the theory of rebirth. They encountered remarriage of widows.
  • North India saw the emergence of Rajput states which patronized Brahmans – performed a secular & ritual function. The Naths, Jogis, Siddhas also.
  • Through guided by the ulema, rulers followed a flexible policy granting religious tax exemptions to non-Muslims sometimes.
  • Those who accepted Islam in India accepted in principle the five pillars of faith but these were overlooked with deviation in practice derived from local customs & affiliations. (summi, shia) some like in Malabar court adopted local language
    • Sufism – Sufis were critical of dogmatic definitions & scholastic method of interpreting
    • Quran. They emphasized the interpretation of Quran on the basis of personal experiences.
  • Chishtis – were a part of Sufis – hospices of khangah were small room & hall for students to live & pray. Life in chaisti khangah was like the life of a monastery &  catered to all travelers rich or poor. Shaikh Nizamuddin chishti had many followers.
  • The practice of visits to dargas gained prominence by 14th century – shrines became very popular. Also music & dance & mystical chants were performed to evoke divine ecstasy.
  • The Bhakti movement saw the emergence of poet-saint like Kabir where poems were written in the form in which every meaning are inverted.

02 marks questions:

Q.1 What does Bhakti movement mean?            (2)
 Ans. 
A series of Hindu saints& reformers started religious reform movements which adopted the method of devotion ( Bhakti ) to achieve the salvation their method of expression of devotion ranged from the routine worship of deities within temple & singing & chanting of devotional composition.

Q.2 Who was Alvarez?           (2)
 Ans.
In southern India, the devotees of Vishnu were called Alvars.

Q.3 Give the name of any four well-known reformers of Bhakti movement ?           (2)
 Ans.
Ramanand Swami, Kabir, Guru Nanak Dev, Mira Bai.

Q.4 What do you mean by Sufism?           (2)
 Ans.
The Sufis were Muslim saints Who left a great impact on the Indian society Sufism originated in Persia.

Q.-5 What is the importance of Murshid in Sufi ideology?           (2)
 Ans. 
According to Sufism, an individual must have a religious guide (Murshid) through whom he can communicate with God. The pair is a ladder which enables a man to reach
the goal of life Devotion to the Murshid is the worship of God.

05 marks questions

Q.6 (a) Describe the causes of the rise of Bhakti movement?           (5)

Ans. 1. Influence of Vaishnavism
2. Evil practices of the Hindus
3. Fear of spirit of Islam
4. Influence of Sufi sects
5. The emergence of great reformers.

Q.6 (b) Describe the main Principal of Bhakti movement ?           (5)
 Ans.
1. Faith in god
2. Good Deeds
3. Universal Brotherhood
4. Emotional worship
5. Condemned idol worship
6. Opposed to the rigidity of the caste system  
7. Guru-Bhakti

Q.6(c) Discuss the influences & importance of Bhakti movement?           (2)
 Ans. RELIGIOUS EFFECTS

1. Saked Hinduism
2. Lowered the prestige of the Brahmins
3. Checked the propagation of Islam
4. Emergence of Sikhism
5. Setback back to Buddhism

SOCIAL & CULTURAL IMPACT
(a) Improvement in the social relation between the Hindus & Muslims
(b) Uplift of the lower class
(c) Promoted the spirit of social service
(d) Development of composite art in the society
(e) Enrichment of Literature.

Q.7 What were the main Principle of Sufism?           (5)
 Ans. 
1. Worship of God
2. Renunciation of worldly pleasure
3. Nonviolence & pacitism
4. Love of mankind
5. Importance of Murshid
6. Principle of Morality
7. Importance of singing & Dancing in the worship of Allah

Q.-8 What were Attitude of the Nayanars & Alavars sects towards the cast?           (5)
 Ans.
Some historians are of the view that Alvarez & Nayanaras started a movement of Protest against the caste system & the dominance of Brahmans are at least made effort to
reform them. This view is supported by the fact, that these Bhakti reformers came from diverse social background some of the belonged to lower classes such as Cultivators, Artism & untouchable some of them Barman background. The Alvarez & Nayanars claimed that their compositions were as important as the Vedas. The Tamil song of the Alvars is marked by such depth of feeling & true piety that they are looked upon as Vaishnava Vedas. the nayanaras composed their devotional songs with the highest spiritual sentiments & set up Shaivism on a strang tooting. these songs are still popular in south India.

Q.-9 Describe the teaching of Kabir? How does he describe the ultimate reality through the poems?               8+2=10
 Ans. 
(a) To achieve inward spiritual bliss
(b) Condemnation of empty ritual
(c) To faster harmony between Hinduism & Islam
(d) He believed in one formless God
(e) Rejected both Vedas & Kuran & the supremacy of the Brahmins & Mulas

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