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Chemical Coordination In Animals - Endocrine System - Science Class 10

Hormones in Animals

  • The branch of biology which deals with the study of the endocrine system and its physiology is known as"endocrinology".
  • "Thomas Addison" is known as the Father of Endocrinology.
  • The glands which pour their secretion directly into the blood are called endocrine glands. These glands lack ducts, so these glands are called ductless glands. ExampleThyroid gland, parathyroid gland.
  • On the other hand, the glands with ducts are called exocrine glands. Example: Sweat gland, salivary gland.

Pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine part, so it is also called mixed gland or common gland or heterocrine gland. 


  • Chemicals secreted by endocrine glands are called "hormones".
  • The term hormone was coined by Starling.
  • Hormones are also called "primary messengers" or "chemical messengers".


  • First discovered hormone was secretin.
  • It was discovered by Bayliss and Starling.

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Which gland is an example of an endocrine gland?
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 Physical & Chemical Properties of Hormones

  • These are secreted by endocrine glands.
  • Hormones are secreted only when required.
  • Their secretion is regulated by feedback mechanisms.
  • These are generally released in the bloodstream.
  • The molecules of most of the hormones are small.
  • Their molecular weight is low.
  • The secretion of a hormone is always in very small quantity.
  • Hormones are destroyed after use i.e. hormones can not be stored in the body. Thyroxine is an exception.
    Male Endocrine GlandsMale Endocrine Glands

Major Endocrine GlandsMajor Endocrine Glands

Difference between Nervous and Hormonal Coordination

S. NO.Nervous CoordinationHormonal Coordination
1It is sent as an electrical impulse along axons, and as a chemical across synapse.It is sent as a chemical messenger via blood stream.
2Information travels rapidly, in milliseconds.Information travels slowly.
3Information is directed to specific receptors–one or a few nerve fibres, gland cells or other neurons.Information is spread throughout the body by blood from which the target cells or organs pick it up.
4It gets response immediately.It gets response usually slowly.
5Its effects are short-lived.Its effects are generally more prolonged.

Some Important Endocrine Glands and Hormones

S. No.Nature of Endocrine glandPosition in bodyHormone(s)Chemical Nature of HormonesFunction(s)Hypo/Hypersection CausesSpecial Points
1HypothalamusBelow thalamus in brainReleasing and inhibiting hormonesProteinRegulate the release of pituitary hormones Ectodermal in orgin


- Anterior gland

Below hypothalamus attached to it with a stalk called infundibulum


GH (Growth Hormone)Protein

Body Growth

Hyposecretion in children causes dwarfism

Also called master gland of the body
Growth of Muscles and bonesHypersecretion in children causes gigantism and in adults causes acromegaly
TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)ProteinRegulate the secretion of hormones from thyroid  
ACTH (Adreno Cortico Tropic Hormone)Protein Secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex   
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)Protein stimulate spermatogenesis and oogenesis  
LH (Luteinising Hormone)Protein It causes ovulatiin and formation of corpus luteum 

-   LH in males is called ICSH

LTH (Luteotropic Honnone)Protein 

Stimulate growth of mammary glands during pregnancy and promotes lactation alter parturition (delivery)


-   Also Known as Prolactin.

Middle lobe


MSH (Melanocyte




Metachrosis (colour change) in poikilothermals (cold blooded animals)


- In human MSH is secreted by anterior lobe is merged in anterior lobe

Posterior lobe OxytoxinProtein

-Function in human is not known.

- Contraction of uterine muscles during pregnancy

-  Causes release of milk after delivery


Also called birth hormone



- Reabsorption of water from DCT of nephron and collecting duct

-Hyposecretion causes Diabetes insipidus

Also called ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)

3ThyroidLocated in the neck between the trachea and larynxThyroxineAmineRegulate BMR of body- Hyposecretion in children causes cretinismThyroxine is the only hormone stored in our body
- CalcitoninProtein

-Decreases the level of calcium in blood

- Hyposecretion in adults causes myxoedema

- Generally say hyposecretion of thyroxine causes simple goitre

- Hypersecretion of Thyroxine causes exophthalmic goitre

Element in thyroxine is iodine

4ParathyroidAttached to thyroid




Increases the level of calcium in blood

Hypersecretion of PTH causes osteoporosis

Hyposecretion causes tetany

Also called Collip's Hormone
5Pineal glandAttached to epithalamus in brainMelatoninAmine

- Metachrosis in poikibthermals

- Control sexual behaviour in mammals


- Also called epiphysis cerebri

- Also called as third eye in frog

- Ectodermal in origin

6PancreasIn the loop of duodenum

- Insulin

- Protein

- Decreases the level of glucose in blood

- Hyposecretion of insulin causes Diabetes mellitus

World Diabetes Day 14 November


- Glucagon- Protein- Increases the level of glucose in blood 

- Endocrine part of pancreas is called Islets of Langerhans.

- Endodennal in origin

7Adrenal GlandAbove Kidney



Hyposecretion of corticoids causes Addison's disease

Ectomesodennal in origin

Adrenal Cortex 




Maintain the level of Na+, K+ and Cl- body

Hypersecretion of corticoids causes Cushing's and Conn's disease

Also called 3-F gland, Life saving gland, 4-S gland, Emergency gland
 Gluco corticoids Carbohydrate metabolism  
 Sex corticoids Secrete androgens and estrogens  
 AdrenalineAmineIncreases heart beat, blood pressure and blood glucose level  
8TestesOutside the abdominal cavityTestosteroneSteroid

-Stimulate spermatogenesis

-Promote secondary sexual
 characters in male

9OvariesInside the abdominal cavityEstrogenSteroidStimuate oogenesis  

- Promote secondary sexual characters in females

- Maintain pregnancy Progesterone is also called anti abortion hormone
10 ThymusNear HeartThymosinProteinIncrease immunity of body 

- Endodermal in origin

-Also called Throne of Immunity or training School of T-lymphocytes



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FAQs on Chemical Coordination In Animals - Endocrine System - Science Class 10

1. What are hormones?
Ans. Hormones are chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands and are responsible for regulating various bodily functions. They are released into the bloodstream and travel to specific target cells or organs, where they elicit specific responses.
2. How are nervous and hormonal coordination different?
Ans. Nervous coordination involves the transmission of electrical signals through specialized cells called neurons. It is fast-acting and generally involves short-lived responses. On the other hand, hormonal coordination involves the release of hormones into the bloodstream, which then travel to target cells or organs to elicit a response. It is slower-acting but often results in long-lasting effects.
3. What are some important endocrine glands and hormones in animals?
Ans. Some important endocrine glands in animals include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, and gonads. These glands produce hormones such as growth hormone, thyroid hormone, adrenaline, insulin, and sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone), respectively.
4. How does the endocrine system regulate the body?
Ans. The endocrine system regulates the body by maintaining homeostasis and coordinating various physiological processes. Hormones produced by the endocrine glands act as chemical messengers and help regulate metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, stress response, and many other functions in the body.
5. What are some examples of hormonal disorders in animals?
Ans. Some examples of hormonal disorders in animals include hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels), hyperthyroidism (excessive thyroid hormone levels), diabetes (insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance), and adrenal insufficiency (low levels of adrenal hormones). These disorders can lead to various symptoms and health complications if left untreated.
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