Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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The human body is a complex machine, requiring many processes to function efficiently. To keep these crucial processes running without any hitches, vital elements and components need to be delivered to the various parts of the body. This role of transportation is undertaken by the human circulatory system, moving essential nutrients and minerals throughout the body and metabolic waste products away from the body.

Human Circulatory System

The human circulatory system consists of a network of arteries, veins, and capillaries, with the heart pumping blood through it. Its primary role is to provide essential nutrients, minerals, and hormones to various parts of the body. 

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev


Alternatively, the circulatory system is also responsible for collecting metabolic waste and toxins from the cells and tissues to be purified or expelled from the body. 


Organs of Circulatory System

The human circulatory system comprises 4 main organs that have specific roles and functions. The vital circulatory system organs include:

  • Heart
  • Blood (technically, blood is considered a tissue and not an organ)
  • Blood Vessels
  • Lymphatic system

Heart

Size - 5 × 3.5 inches

Colour - Pink

Shape - Conical

Weight - 300 gm.

Position-It is situated in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs slightly on the ventral surface.

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRevStructure of Human Heart

• Its triangular, superior-broad portion is tilted slightly towards the right (dorsal) side, its lower narrow portion is tilted towards the left side.

• Heart is enclosed from all the sides by an envelope of two membranes called pericardial membranes (pericardium).

• The narrow space in between these two membranes is called the pericardial cavity. Fluid is present in this cavity, called pericardial fluid.

• Pericardial fluid prevents the heart from external jerks.

• It reduces the friction during contraction.

• The human heart is divisible into four chambers.

• The upper two chambers are auricles (atria) while the lower two chambers are called ventricles.


The External Structure of Heart

• Auricular part of the heart is smaller and its walls are thin.

• It is divided into right and left auricles, by a groove called the inter-auricular sulcus.

• Ventricular part is broad and muscular.

• Ventricles have a thicker wall than auricles.

• The groove which divides the two ventricles is termed as the inter-ventricular sulcus.

  

The Internal Structure of the Heart 

• Partition between right and left auricle is known as inter-auricular septum while partition between the two ventricles is known as the inter-ventricular septum.

• Partition between auricles and ventricles is known as the auriculo-ventricular septum.

 

(A) Right Auricle (Atrium) 

• The right auricle has the openings of the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.

• Deoxygenated blood from the veins of the head, neck and upper limbs enters the right auricle by superior vena cava and from the rest of the body and lower limbs by the inferior vena cava.

• The coronary sinus, which drains deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle.

• From the right auricle blood passes into the right ventricle through a tricuspid valve, (so-called because it has three cusps.)


(B) Right Ventricle 

• Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery. It is guarded by a semilunar valve.

• This artery further divides into right and left pulmonary arteries entering into the two lungs where they further branch into pulmonary capillaries.

 

(C) Left Auricle (Atrium) 

• This chamber receives four pulmonary veins, two from each lung from where they bring oxygenated blood.

• The left auricle empties its blood into the left ventricle through a mitral or bicuspid valve. 


(D) Left Ventricle :

• Blood leaves the left ventricle by the large, main artery of the body called the aorta.

• The opening from the left ventricle into the aorta is guarded by the aortic semilunar valve.

• Just beyond these, a pair of coronary arteries are present which supply blood to heart muscles.

• This blood is brought back to the heart by coronary veins which join to form the coronary sinus.


Haversian valve - Present on the opening of superior vena cava (SVC)

Eustachian valve - Present on the opening of inferior vena cava (IVC)

Thebesian valve - Present at the opening of the coronary sinus.

Columnae carnae - Finger-like projection from ventricle inner walls.

Papillary muscles - Present at the tip of columnal carnae.

Chorda tendinae - Arise from papillary muscles and keep the valves in a proper position.

Musculi pectinati - Transverse muscular ridges present on auricles' inner walls.
 

Working of the heart

• The heart of the human works like a pump.

• Pure oxygenated blood enters the left auricle from lungs through pulmonary veins.

• The deoxygenated blood from various parts of the body enters the right auricle through veins and capillaries.


Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev

• The two auricles contract simultaneously so the oxygenated blood from the left auricle to the left ventricle and deoxygenated blood from the right auricle is pumped into the right ventricle.

• Now both the ventricles contract simultaneously so the pressure is created on the blood and the valves between auricle and ventricle close and the blood do not go back into the auricle.

• Due to this pressure, the aorta valve opens and the blood comes into the aorta, from here, blood is sent to different parts of the body with the help of various arteries.

• By the contraction of the right ventricle, blood reaches the lungs through pulmonary arteries where it gets reoxygenated.


Heartbeat

• Rhythmic contraction and expansion of the heart is called heartbeat. Contraction and expansion occur separately in the atria and ventricles.

• The Sinu-Atrial node (SA node) found in the wall of the right atrium, is responsible to initiate and maintain the heartbeat by generating impulses.

• SA node is also known as "Pacemaker" of heart. In some heart patients, the heart does not beat normally. The muscle cells stop functioning. In such patients, a machine called a pacemaker is inserted in the patient's heart, so that heart beats normally.

 Heartbeat in humans is 72 times in one minute.

• Each heartbeat has two components, systole, and diastole. Systole represents contraction while diastole represents expansion or distension of heart chambers.

Tachycardia: It is the condition where the heartbeat (rate) exceeds 90 per minute for an average adult man.

Bradycardia: It is the condition where the heartbeat falls below 60 per minute for an average adult man.

Cardiac Cycle: The sequence of events that takes place during the completion of one heartbeat.


Pulse

• A wave of distension passes along the arteries following each ventricular systole. This wave of distension is called an arterial pulse.

• It is generally felt by placing fingers over the radial artery at the wrist.

• The pulse rate is the same as the heartbeat rate.

 Heart-Sound

Ist Sound - This is a contraction sound that denotes the beginning of ventricle-contraction. It arises due to the closing of the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve. It is weak and appears in the form of " Lubb " (L - U - B - B)

IInd Sound - This is a diastolic sound that denotes the beginning of ventricular diastole. This arises due to the closing of the semi-lunar valves and is heard in the form of " Dup".

• These "Lubb" and "Dup" sounds of the heart can be heard with the help of an instrument called " Stethoscope." 

 Electrocardiogram (ECG)

• The functioning of the heart can be graphically recorded by an instrument called an electrocardiograph.

• The heart muscles generate electric currents which bring about heartbeats. The electrical changes during heartbeat can be graphically recorded by placing electrodes on the chest above the heart and connecting the electrodes to a sensitive galvanometer with a recording device.

• The graphic recording is called an electrocardiogram (ECG.)

• It was first of all recorded by " Waller"

"Einthovan" is known as the Father of Electro Cardio Graphy.


Functions of Circulatory System

The most important function of the circulatory system is transporting oxygen throughout the body. The other vital functions of the human circulatory system are as follows:

  1. It helps in sustaining all the organ systems.
  2. It transports blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones throughout the body.
  3. It protects cells from pathogens.
  4. It acts as an interface for cell-to-cell interaction.
  5. The substances present in the blood help repair the damaged tissue.


Types of Circulatory systems 

There are two types of circulatory system found in animals:-

(i) Open Circulatory System: In this type of circulatory system, the main blood vessels arise from the heart and pour the blood into tissue spaces (sinuses).  e.g. Arthropoda (Cockroach), Echinodermata.


(ii) Closed Circulatory System: In this type of circulatory system, the blood remains only in the blood vessels and is carried to the various organ through vessels and capillaries.  e.g. Human beings, Annelida (Earthworm), some molluscs.

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev


In human beings, the circulatory (transport) system is divided into two systems:

(i) Blood Circulatory System (ii) Lymphatic System
(a) Blood(a) Lymph
(b) Blood vessels(b) Lymph vessels
(c) Heart

(c) Lymph nodes


Blood 

Blood is an important fluid conducting tissue, which transports the materials to different body parts.


Composition of Blood 

Liquid part - (Matrix) - Blood plasma

Solid part -  Blood corpuscles - (RBC, WBC and Platelets)

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Plasma

  • It composes 55% of blood.
  • The plasma has 90-92% water and the remaining 8% -10% are other materials.
  • The plasma is a faint yellow viscous fluid.
  • Plasma contains some soluble proteins (serum albumin, serum globulins, prothrombin, and fibrinogen), inorganic salts, food materials, waste products, dissolved gases, anticoagulants, and antibodies.

Functions of Plasma

  • Transportation of nutrients, respiratory gases, excretion of wastes and hormones of endocrine glands.
  • Prothrombin and fibrinogen plasma proteins help in blood clotting at injuries.
  • Globulins of blood plasma act as antibodies and provide immunity (disease resistance) to the body.
  • Plasma also helps in the transportation of minerals like iron, copper etc.

 Blood Corpuscles

  • They form 45% part of blood.
  • Erythrocytes or Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)
  • Leucocytes or White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)
  • Platelets or Thrombocytes.

Comparative Study of Blood Corpuscles

 CharactersRBCsWBCsPlatelets
1ShapeCircular, BiconcaveRounded, IrregularRounded or Oval
2Size (Diameter in μm)7-8, Smaller than WBCs12 – 20, Larger than RBCs2 – 5, Smallest blood corpuscles
3Number or Count
 (Per cubic millimeter)
5.5 million in males, 4.5
 million in females
8000–110001.5 – 4.5 lakhs
4ColourRed due to
 haemoglobin
ColourlessColourless
5StructureThey lack a cell nucleus and most organelles.They contain all cell organellesNon-nucleated cells
6Life Span120 days1 – 7 days2 – 5 days
7FunctionsTransport oxygen and small amount of carbon di-oxideAct as the soldiers, scavengers and builders of bodyHelp is blood clotting


Functions of Blood 

1. Transportation of oxygen from lungs to tissues.

2. Transportation of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

3. Transportation of excretory material from the tissues to the kidneys: Some of the chemical activities in the body form nitrogenous end products, like urea, that are poisonous. These substances diffuse into the capillaries and are carried by plasma. When they eventually reach the kidneys, a large proportion of them is removed and excreted.

4. Transportation of digested food from the small intestine to the tissue.

5. Distribution of hormones and enzymes.

6. Formation of clots to prevent blood loss.

7. Distribution of heat and temperature control: Muscular and chemical activities release heat. The heat so produced is distributed locally all around the body by the blood and in this way, an even temperature is maintained in all body regions.

8. Prevention of infection and wound healing: WBCs in the blood help in wound healing. Bacteria are destroyed by the WBCs before they can enter the general circulation. Also, the WBCs provide a defence to the body against disease germs and foreign substances. 

  • Haemopoiesis: The process of formation of blood is called haemopoiesis. This process occurs in the red bone marrow and lymphoid tissues (spleen, thymus and lymphatic nodes)
  • Study of blood - Haematology
  • Blood by weight - 7 to 8% of body weight
  • Blood by volume - 5-6 litres in male and 4-5 litres in female
  • Process of RBC formation - Erythropoiesis.
  • Decrease in RBC count - Anaemia
  • Number of RBC count increases at high altitude, this condition known as polycythemia
  • Blood red in colour due to red coloured respiratory pigment haemoglobin present in RBC.
  • Iron (Ferrous ion Fe+2 )element found in Haem component of haemoglobin (Hb).
  • Leukaemia: Abnormal increase in TLC (Total Leucocyte Count) . It is also called blood cancer.
  •  On the basis of nucleus and nature of cytoplasm, WBCs are of the following types:-
  • (i) Agranulocytes :- (a) Monocytes (b) Lymphocytes
  • (ii) Granulocytes :- (a) Acidophils (b) Basophils (c) Neutrophils

Blood vessels
In humans, three types of blood vessels are present.

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev


1. Arteries: The vessels which carry blood from the heart to various organs of the body.

2. Veins: They collect the blood from different parts of the body and pour it into the heart.

3. Capillaries: These are the smallest blood vessels and one-cell thick.

The major differences between various blood vessels have been given in Table.


Comparative Study of Blood Vessels

S. No.FeaturesArteriesVeinsCapillaries
1Direction of blood flowTake the blood away from heart to different  parts of body.Bring the blood towards the heart from various body parts.Blood flows from arterioles (capillaries) to venules.
2Kind of bloodOxygenated blood except in pulmonary artery.Deoxygenated blood
 except in pulmonary vein.
Blood changes from oxygenated to deoxygenated.
3Blood pressurePressure is highPressure is low.Pressure is extremely low
4Blood flowBlood flows rapidly with jerks.Blood flows smoothly
 without jerks.
Blood flows smoothly without jerks.
5LumenNarrowWideVery small
6Semilunar valvesAbsentPresentAbsent
7LocationMostly deep seated.Mostly superficial.Form a network all over the body and in the organs.


Lymphatic System

  • The human circulatory system consists of another body fluid called lymph. It is also known as tissue fluid.

Circulatory System and The Human Heart Class 10 Notes | EduRev

  •  It is produced by the lymphatic system which comprises a network of interconnected organs, nodes, and ducts.
  • Lymph is a colorless fluid consisting of salts, proteins, water, which transport and circulates digested food and absorbed fat to intercellular spaces in the tissues. Unlike the circulatory system, lymph is not pumped; instead, it passively flows through a network of vessels.


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