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Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Question Answers - Gender Religion and Caste (Old Syllabus)

Short Answer Questions


Q1: Define a feminist movement. What is their objective? 
Ans: A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men. More radical women’s movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called feminist movements. The objectives of the feminist movement are enhancing the political and legal status of women, in proving their educational, health, and career opportunities

Q2: What are the factors other than the caste which play a decisive role at the time of the election? 
Ans: Other than caste some more are there which play a decisive role at the time of the election –
(i) Money – During the election, some candidates purchase the vote by giving money.
(ii) Power – Power also attracts the voter. Sometimes willingly and sometimes by force.
(iii) Prestige – Suppose any party or candidate has good prestige, then also voters are attracted.

Q3: Unless women are empowered, their problems will never get adequate attention. Suggest any 3 ways to empower them.
Ans: Women can be empowered by –
(i) Enhancing the political and legal status
(ii) Enhancing their educational status
(iii) By giving them equal rights and career opportunities.

Q4: How are religious differences expressed in politics? 
Ans: 

  • Religion often finds expression in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, particularly when one religious group is set against another.

  • This phenomenon occurs when the beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.

  • Inter-religious opposition becomes evident when the demands of one religious group are formulated in direct opposition to another.

  • State power is sometimes wielded to establish the dominance of one religious group over others, further complicating the intersection of religion and politics.

  • This specific manner of utilizing religion in politics is termed communal politics. It involves pitting one religious group and its followers against others, fostering divisions based on religious beliefs, and promoting exclusivity.

Q5: How does the Constitution of India ensure secularism? 
Ans:(i) There is no official religion in the Indian state. Our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.
(ii) The Constitution provided to all individuals and communities the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
(iii) The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(iv) The Constitution also allows the state to intervene in matters of religion to ensure equality within religious communities.

Q6: “In our country, women still lag much behind men despite some improvements since independence.” Support the statement by giving three reasons.
Ans: (i) The literacy rate (as per the 2001 census) among women is only 54 percent compared with 76 percent among men. Similarly, only a smaller proportion of girls go for higher studies.
(ii) The proportion of women in the highly paid and valued job is still very small. On average, an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day. Yet much of her work is not paid and therefore often not valued.
(iii) As per the Equal Wages Act, equal wages should be paid for equal work. But, in almost all areas of work, from sports and cinema to factories and fields, women are paid less than men, even when both do the same work.

Long Answer Questions


Q1: Write a note on the status of women in India.
                                                                         OR
 How do women in India still face discrimination and oppression in various ways? Explain with four examples. 

Ans:

  • India upholds a patriarchal societal structure, where men are granted more power and higher value than women.

  • Despite decades of independence, the status of women in India remains notably low.

  • Educational gender disparities persist, with women having a literacy rate of 54% compared to men's 76%. Girls are more likely to drop out of school, and parental investment in boys' education is prioritized.

  • Disturbingly, the practice of female foeticide persists in many Indian states, leading to a decline in the sex ratio.

  • Gender wage gaps persist despite the enactment of the Equal Wages Act, extending across various fields such as sports, movies, factories, and agriculture. Additionally, the significant contribution of women to household work is often undervalued.

  • Women have limited roles in decision-making processes, evident in the low representation in Parliament, state assemblies, managerial posts, senior officials, and among professionals and technical workers.

  • Despite symbolic celebrations such as the "Year of the Child" and "Year of the Women," and even having had a woman Prime Minister, the overall status of women has not significantly improved.

  • Reservation policies alone are insufficient to rectify these deep-seated issues; empowering women with more influence is essential for them to rightfully assume their place in both domestic and public spheres.


Q2: How does communalism take various forms in politics? Explain four forms. 
Ans: Communalism can take various forms in politics :
(i) The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. It involves religious, prejudices, and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over others.
(ii) When one tries to have political dominance of one's religious community, especially by the majority community, it leads to the desire in the minority community to form a separate political unit.
(iii) Political mobilization on religious lines is another form of communalism. It involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal, and plain fear to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics, it leads to emotional appeals to the voters of one religion in preference to others.
(iv) Sometimes communalism takes its ugliest form — communal violence, riots, and massacres. This we have seen in the case of India and Pakistan at the time of partition of the country.

Q3: How do women in our country still lag much behind men despite some improvement since Independence? Explain with four examples.
                                                                    OR
 Describe any four aspects of life in which women are discriminated against in Indian society.

Ans: In India, women are supposed to bring up children and look after the home. They do all the cleaning, washing, cooking, even tailoring. There is no value attached to this work. In rural areas, women work in the fields, and fetch water and fuel but are hardly paid anything. In urban areas, middle-class women work in offices, factories, etc. Poor women work as domestic help, but none of them get the same wages as men. Their status is lower than that of men. Men do not do any housework. They are excellent cooks or tailors but they take up these jobs only when paid in hotels etc.

Q4: How does casteism affect politics?
                                                                      OR
 Explain any four forms of casteism in Indian politics.
                                                                     OR
 Caste can take various forms in politics. Describe any four forms.

Ans: The caste can take the following forms in politics :
(i) Sometimes candidates are chosen based on their caste. When political parties choose candidates, they keep in mind the caste composition of their voters.
(ii) In many places, voters vote based on caste and fail to choose suitable candidates.
(iii) When a government is formed after elections, political parties take care that different castes are represented in the government.
(iv) Political parties appeal to caste sentiments during elections.
(v) To gain support, political parties raise caste-based issues during elections. This they do to get political support, as one man, one-vote system or adult franchise has made the voter very powerful.
(vi) The castes considered inferior or low until now have been made conscious of their rights by the political parties.

The document Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Question Answers - Gender Religion and Caste (Old Syllabus) is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Question Answers - Gender Religion and Caste (Old Syllabus)

1. What is the definition of gender?
Ans. Gender refers to the social and cultural roles, behaviors, and expectations that society associates with being male or female. It is a construct that goes beyond biological differences and includes aspects such as identity, expression, and roles in society.
2. How does religion influence society?
Ans. Religion plays a significant role in shaping societal values, norms, and beliefs. It provides individuals with a moral framework, guides their behavior, and influences their attitudes towards various issues. Religion also acts as a unifying force, bringing people together through shared beliefs and practices.
3. What is the concept of caste?
Ans. Caste is a social system that categorizes individuals into hierarchical groups based on their birth and occupation. It is prevalent in many societies, particularly in India, where it influences social relationships, opportunities, and access to resources. Caste discrimination and untouchability have been major challenges in achieving social equality.
4. What is the relationship between gender and caste?
Ans. The relationship between gender and caste is complex and intertwined. Caste often reinforces gender inequality, with women from lower castes facing multiple forms of discrimination and oppression. They experience discrimination not only based on their gender but also due to their caste, resulting in limited opportunities and access to resources.
5. How does religion impact gender roles and expectations?
Ans. Religion often shapes and reinforces traditional gender roles and expectations. Many religious doctrines and practices assign specific roles and responsibilities to men and women, which can limit their freedom and perpetuate gender inequalities. However, religious interpretations and practices vary across cultures, and some religious communities have also challenged traditional gender norms and advocated for greater gender equality.
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