Q1: ‘‘Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of a country.’’ Support the statement with examples.
Ans: Manufacturing sector:
(i) It helps in modernizing agriculture.
(ii) Helps in providing jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(iii) Reduces unemployment and poverty.
(iv) It brings down the regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
(v) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.
Q2: How can agriculture and industry go hand in hand?
Ans: The agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its production. It produces equipments like tractors, harvesters, threshers, etc.
On the other hand, industries are run on agricultural products like cotton, sugarcane, jute, edible oils, etc.
Q3: Which factors were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industries in Maharashtra and Gujarat?
Q4: What is the contribution of industry to the national economy of India? Compare it with the East-Asian countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?
Q5: Mention any two challenges faced by the jute industry in India. State any one step taken by the government to stimulate its demand.
The two important challenges faced by the jute industry in India are as follows:
Q6: Mention any two factors that have contributed to the healthy growth of the automobile industry in India. Name two centres where this industry is located.
Q7: What are the three main reasons for shifting the sugar mills to Maharashtra in recent years?
Ans: Three main reasons are as follows:
Q8: What is natural gas? What are its advantages? Name one region of India where its reserves are found.
Ans: Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum.
Q9: What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of the Information Technology industry in India?
Ans: Software technology parks provide single window services and high data communication facilities to software experts.
The two significant points of IT industries are as follows:
Q10: Why do you feel that there are plans to shift sugar mills to South India?
Ans: Reasons to shift sugar mills:
(i) Sugarcane produced in these states have higher sugar content.
(ii) The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
(iii) The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
(iv) If sugarcane is transported from South to North India, due to delays in trains, sugarcane loses its sugar content as it is a perishable good.
Q11: Mention any six factors responsible for the location of jute mills in the Hugli basin.
Q12: Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states in India? Explain any three reasons.
Ans: Three main reasons are as follows:
Q13: Distinguish between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plants stating three points of distinction.
Q14: Explain any three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India are as follows:
Q15: Distinguish between agro-based and mineral-based industries. Also, give two examples of each.
Q16: Why is the iron and steel industry called the basic and heavy industry?
Ans: Iron and steel industry is called basic heavy industry because its:
Q18: Why is the cotton textile industry the largest industry in India today? Give any three reasons.
Q19: How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain with three examples.
Ans: The three types of pollution caused by industries are air pollution, water pollution and Noise pollution.
Q20: Explain any three factors which influence industrial locations.
Q1: Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy.
Challenges faced by the jute industry:
(i) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(ii) To stimulate the demand of the products need to be diversified.
(iii) Stiff competition from the other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil etc.
Objective of National Jute policy:
(i) Increasing productivity
(ii) Improving quality
(iii) Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers.
(iv) Enhancing the yield per hectare.
Q2: What is India’s status in chemical production?
Q3: What is the status of the cement industry in India?
Ans: The cement industry in India has a rich history, with the establishment of the first plant in Chennai in 1904. Post-Independence, the sector witnessed significant expansion, and key policy reforms in 1989, including the decontrol of price and distribution, and accelerated progress in capacity, technology, and production processes. Currently, India hosts 128 large and 332 mini cement plants, highlighting the industry's substantial role in driving infrastructure development. This diversification allows for the production of various cement types, catering to both domestic and international demands.
The industry's adaptability to modern processes is a noteworthy aspect that positions India competitively in the global cement market. This flexibility not only supports domestic construction requirements but also establishes India as a significant exporter, contributing significantly to international construction needs. In conclusion, the Indian cement industry, marked by historical evolution, policy reforms, and technological advancements, continues to play a crucial role in shaping the nation's infrastructure and maintaining global competitiveness.
Q4: What is the current position of the automobile industry in India?
Q5: Why are sugar mills concentrated in sugarcane producing areas? Explain any three problems faced by sugar industry in India.
Sugar industries are concentrated in the sugarcane producing areas:
Q6: Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy.
Ans: Role of chemical industries in the Indian Economy:
(i) It contributes approximately 3 % of the GDP.
(ii) It is the 3rd largest in Asia and occupies the 12th place in the world.
(iii) It compromises both large and small scale manufacturing units.
(iv) Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sector.
(v) Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, rubber, plastics, and dye stuffs.
(vi) Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastics, adhesives, paints etc.
(vii) The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
Q6: Suggest any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
Ans: Measures to Control Industrial Pollution
(i) Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
(ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
(iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.
(iv) Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases
(v) Primary treatment by mechanical means involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. , Secondary treatment by biological process, Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
(vi) Overdrawing of groundwater needs to be regulated legally.
(vii) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(viii) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(ix) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(x) Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
|1. What are the main types of manufacturing industries?
|2. How has technology impacted manufacturing industries?
|3. What are some challenges faced by manufacturing industries?
|4. How do manufacturing industries contribute to the economy?
|5. What are some recent trends in manufacturing industries?