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Ques 1: Why did the British manufacturers print calendars for popularising their products in the late 19th century?
Ans: Calendars were used even by people who could not read unlike newpapers and magazines. That's why, the Britisher manufactures printed calendars for popularising their products in the late 19th century.
Ques 2: Where was the first Indian Jute mill set up?
Ans: The first Indian Jute mill was set up in Bengal.
Ques 3: Where was 'Chutney music' popular?
Ans: Chutney music' was popular in Trinidad and Guyana.
Ques 4: What is the first project for wildlife conservation in India?
Ans: Project Tiger implemented in 1973 is the first and key project for wildlife conservation in India.
Ques 5: Name some hydroelectric projects on Damodar River Basin.
Ans: Tiliaya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet are major hydroelectric projects on Damodar River Basin.
Ques 6: How many languages are included in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution?
Ans: Twenty two languages are included in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution.
Ques 7: Social difference arises due to which differences?
Ans: Social difference arises due to race, religion, language, etc.
Ques 8: Mention atleast one country in South Asia which has lower HDI than India.
Ans: Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc have lower HDI (Human Development Index) than India.
Ques 9: Which sectors are called public sectors? Give some examples.
Ans: The public sector refers to the part of the economy concerned with providing various government services. The composition of the public sector varies by country. In most countries, the public sector includes services like military, police, public transit and care of public roads, public education, healthcare, etc. The public sector might provide services that a non-payer cannot be excluded from (such as street lighting) services which benefit all of society rather than just the individual who uses the service.
Ques 10: Briefly describe the normal species and the endangered species according to the IUCN classification.
Ans: (i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. In reality they were rarely given such permission.
(ii) For plantation workers in Assam, the notion of 'Swaraj' meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed and also the right to retain a link with their native villages.
When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, they left plantation and headed for their own villages. The believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages. But they were caught by the police.
Ques 11: Name the first novel written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Describe any three characteristics of the novel.
Ans: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's first novel was Durgeshnandini (1865). The story set in the backdrop of Pathan-Mughal conflicts that took place in South-Western region of modern-day Indian State of West Bengal during the reign of Akbar.
(i) Durgeshnandini was not only Bankim's first novel, it was first major Bengali novel in the history of Bengali literature.
(ii) Thirteen editions of the novel were published during the lifetime of Bankim Chandra. It was translated into English, Hindi and Kannada. This novel has been made into a Bengali and a Hindi film as well.
(iii) Durgeshnandini was a story of a love triangle between Jagat Singh, a Mughal General, Tilottama, the daughter of a Bengali feudal Lord and Ayesha, the daughter of a rebel Pathan leader against whom Jagat Singh was fighting. The story was based on the age-old fight between good and evil.
Ques 12: What is underemployment or disguised unemployment?
Ans: Underemployment means there are more people working in a sector than is necessary for that sector. For example, agricultural sector. Workers in agricultural sector are underemployed in India. Even if we remove some people, production will not be affected. We find that everyone in agricultural sector is working, none remains idle. Each one is doing some work, but no one is fully employed.
This situation is known as underemployment, where people are apparently working, but all of them are made to work less than their potential. This kind of underemployment is hidden in contrast to someone, who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed. Hence, it is called disguised unemployment.
Ques 13: How did the British manufacturers attempt to take over the Indian market with the help of advertisements? Explain with three examples.
Ans: The British manufacturers attempted to take over Indian market by using advertisement for their products because
(i) They tried to persuade the customers and buyers by using such advertisements, which would appeal to the Indians as making the products appear desirable and necessary. For example, the Woodward's gripe water bottle for babies was advertised with an image of the baby Krishna to impress Indian consumers.
(ii) Images of Indian Gods and Goddesses were shown as approving the quality of foreign products to Indian people.
(iii) Sometimes figures of important personages, emperors and nawabs were used in advertisements. It suggested that the product was being used by such personalities, so its quality could not be questioned.
Ques 14: Why was the 19th century indenture system referred to as the new 'system of slavery'?
Ans: The indentured labourers lived in harsh working conditions and had few legal rights. On arrival at the plantations, labourers found conditions to be different from what they had imagined. They had to work like bonded labour. If anyone wanted to run away, they were caught and seveaely punished. Thus, 19th century indentured labour has been described as the new 'system of slavery'.
Ques 15: What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
Ans: In a unitary form of government, the national government has all the powers. Any Constitutional powers given to the states or regions of the country are dependent on the national government, which can withdraw from them at any time. Sri Lanka is one such example. In the federal form of government like in India, the powers are divi led between the National Government and the various State Government.
Both levels have their areas of jurisdiction. In a unitary system, the State Government does not have power of its own. The Central Government can pass on orders to the local governments. But in a federal system a State Government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the Central Government. Central Government cannot order the State Government to do something for which the state has the power.
Ques 16: State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
Ans: The two reasons which shows that caste alone cannot determine election results in India are
(i) No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. When people say the caste is a 'vote bank' of one party, it usually means that a large proportion of voters from that caste vote for that party.
(ii) No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.
Ques 17: Why is power sharing desirable?
Ans: Two sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing, namely prudential reasons and moral reasons. They are explained as
(a) Prudential Reasons
(i) Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
(ii) Since, social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure stability of political order.
(b) Moral Reasons
(i) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects.
(ii) People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
Ques 18: Explain any four characteristics of commercial farming in India.
Ans: Major characteristics of commercial farming in India are
(i) Commercial farming is crop selective and aims for industrial inputs and export.
(ii) It uses modern technologies extensively.
(iii) It uses high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
(iv) Commercial farming leads to the development activities in transport, connectivity and processing industries.
Ques 19: What is the reason behind Krishna-Godavari water dispute? Name the multi-purpose river valley project constructed on River Krishna.
Ans: The Krishna-Godavari dispute is due to the objections raised by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh governments. It is regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna river, a tributary of Krishna river for a multi-purpose project.
This project reduces down-stream flow of river Krishna in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh which leads to adverse consequences for agriculture and industry.
The multi-purpose river valley project on Krishna river is Nagarjuna Sagar Dam. It is one of the earliest multipurpose project in India which is constructed in the border of Guntur and Nalgonda districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Ques 20: Explain the objective of implementing the MGNREGA.
Ans: The objective of implementing MGNREGA are
(i) Its main objective is to provide employment to the unemployed. It gives social protection for the most vulnerable people living in rural India by giving them employment opportunities.
(ii) According to MGNREGA, all those who are able to and are in need of work would be guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government.
(iii) If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people. This act known as 'the largest and most ambitious social security and public works programme in the world.' MGNREGA is a powerful instrument for ensuring inclusive growth in rural India.
Ques 21: Distinguish between overlapping and cross-cutting differences.
Ans: Overlapping Differences
(i) Under this, one social difference overlaps with another.
(ii) Under this, people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
(iii) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.
Cross Cutting Differences
(i) Under this, a social difference cross cuts another difference.
(ii) Under this, the group can share a common interest on one issue but are likely to be on different sides on different issues.
(iii) These are easier to accommodate.
Ques 22: How does politics affect caste? Give its positive and negative effects.
Ans: Politics influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena and the caste gets politicised. This takes the following forms
(i) Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighboring castes or sub-castes, which were earlier excluded from it.
(ii) Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation.
(iii) New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like 'backward' and 'forward' caste groups. The positive effect of politics on caste is that in some situations, expression of caste differences in politics give many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power. It has helped Dalits and OBC castes to gain better access to decision-making.
The negative effect of politics on caste is that when exclusive attention is given to a particular caste, it leads to a negative result. It can divert attention from pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption, e.g., politics based on caste identity alone is not very healthy in a democracy. In some cases, caste division leads to tensions, conflict and even violence.
Ques 23: Why did some people in 18th century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
Ans: Some people in 18th century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end disposition because
(i) Spreading of New Ideas After the coming of print culture, the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people. Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published.
(ii) Books as Medium of Progress By the 18th century, books became a medium of spreading progress and enlightenment which could change society and the world. It was also believed that the books could liberate society from despotism and tyranny.
(iii) Writings of Scholars The writings of thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine and Voltaire were also widely printed and could gain popularity. Thus, their ideas about science, rationality and reasoning found their way into popular literature.
(iv) Scientific Discoveries Maps and more accurate scientific diagrams were widely printed when scientists like lssac Newton began to publish their discoveries. They could influence a much wider circle of scientifically-minded readers.
(v) Ideas of Enlightened Thinkers Print popularised the ideas of the enlightened thinkers like Martin Luther who attacked the authority of the church and the despotic power of the state.
(vi) A New Culture of Dialogue and Debate The printing press was believed to be the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion. Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions for the end of despotism in France through the French Revolution.
Ques 24: Novels created a sense of social awareness in India. Analyse by giving examples?
Ans: Novels in the 19th century served as vehicles of social change both in Europe and India. In novels, many real life situations were reflected. They not only criticised the prevailing ills in the society but also suggested remedies. They dealt with class discrimination, prejudices against women, caste and class issues, problems and effects of industrialisation, etc.
They dealt with every aspect of our society, e.g., Premchand in his various novels like Nirmala, Sewasadan and Godan dealt with the poor condition of the women, child marriage and dowry system in our society. Potheri Kunjambu, a lower caste writer from North Kerala, wrote a novel called Saraswati vijayam, where he strongly criticised caste appression.
This novel gave stress on the importance of education for the upliftment of the lower castes. Thus, we can easily say that novels created a sense of social awareness in India.
Ques 25: What are the causes of water scarcity?
Ans: The causes of water scarcity are
(i) Rapidly Growing Population The water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water and unequal access to it. This population needs water for everyday domestic use.
(ii) Rising Demand for Foodgrains To facilitate higher food production, water resources are being exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season agriculture.
(iii) Most farmers especially in the Northern plains have their own wells and tubewells in their farms for Irrigation. To increase production they over exploit the ground water. leading to declining water table.
(iv) Industrialisation The ever increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources, because they are heavy users of water.
(v) Urban Life Style Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban life styles have not only added to the water and energy requirements but have further aggravated the problem. Many housing societies or colonies have their own ground water pumping devices, over exploitation has caused depletion in several cities.
(vi) Pollution A lot of water is polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, etc making it hazardous and unfit for human use, thus contributing to water scarcity.