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Ques 1: Which was world's first mass produced car?
Ans: T-Model ford was world's first mass produced car.
Ques 2: By whom was the New Testament first translated?
Ans: Martin Luther was a German monk, who made the first translation of the New Testament for the German People.
Ques 3: What is the source of palar pani?
Ans: Rainwater is the source of palar pani which is considered as the purest form of natural water.
Ques 4: Name the region where the slash and burn agriculture is known as 'Jhumming'.
Ans: In North-eastern region of India the slash and burn agriculture is known as 'Jhumming'.
Ques 5: What is the other name of Secondary sector?
Ans: The secondary sector is also known as the Industrial sector.
Ques 6: What do you mean by Net Attendance Ratio?
Ans: Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
Ques 7: In which countries women's representation in politics is very high?
Ans: In Sweden, Norway and Finland, women's representation in politics is very high.
Ques 8: Which system of power sharing is called checks and balances?
Ans: Horizontal distribution of power sharing arrangement is known as a system of checks and balances.
Ques 9: What were the demands of the Tamils in Sri Lanka?
Ans: The demands of Tamils in Sri Lanka were
(i) Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
(ii) More autonomy to provinces populated by Tamils.
(iii) Equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.
(iv) Later, they demanded formation of an independent Tamil Elam (state) in Northern and Eastern part of Sri Lanka.
Ques 10: What do you understand by unitary form of government?
Ans: A unitary system of government is that where a state is governed as one single unit in which the Central Government is supreme and governs a state as one unit. Under the unitary system either there is level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the Central Government. The Central Government can pass on orders to the provincial or local government.
Ques 11: Why do we need to conserve the forests and wildlife?
Ans: We need to conserve the forests and wildlife because of the following reasons
(i) There has been a rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry.
(ii) Conservation helps to preserve the ecological balance and ecological diversity and our life support systems?water, air and soil.
(iii) Conservation also helps to preserve the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding.
(iv) Forests and wildlife also provide economic benefits.
(v) Forest depletion accelerates soil erosion.
Ques 12: What precaution should be taken while calculating the value of the goods produced and why?
Ans: While calculating the value of the goods produced is, that we should only count the value of the final goods produced. We should not count or add the value of the intermediate goods, because the value of the final goods already includes the value of the intermediate goods which are used in making the final goods. For example, the value of 50 for a packet of biscuits (final good) already includes the value of flour, sugar and other intermediate goods in it.
Ques 13: What are MNC's?
Ans: Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) are large companies that operate in several countries at the same time. The first MNCs were established in the 1920s and the worldwide spread of MNCs was a notable feature of the 1950s and 1960s. From the late 1970s, MNCs began to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries. This decision increased the job opportunities in the Asian countries. The coming of new MNCs gave the people the opportunity to enjoy new varieties of things. The relocation of industry stimulated world trade and capital flow. Thus, MNCs proved a great help to the true beginning of globalization.
Ques 14: Why are multi-purpose river valley projects known as temples of modern India?
Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the dams as the temples of modern India the reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with the rapid industrialization and growth of the urban economy. Multipurpose projects launched after independence with their integrated water resource management approach were thought of as vehicles that would lead the nation to development and progress.
Ques 15: What is the importance of the agriculture in the Indian economy?
Ans: India is an agriculturally important country because
(i) Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy.
(ii) Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
(iii) Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume. (iv) It also produces raw materials for various agro based industries.
(v) Some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, etc are also exported and help to earn foreign exchange.
Ques 16: Give reasons why British industries failed to recapture their old hold on the Indian market after the First World War.
Ans: British industries failed to recapture their old hold on the Indian market after the First World War because
(i) During the war years, Indian industries gradually consolidated their position by substituting foreign manufacturers and capturing the home market.
(ii) The nationalist movement had gained ground under Mahatma Gandhi and his call for use of Swadeshi products was largely supported.
(iii) Countries like Japan, US and Germany had modernized and Britain could not compete with them.
(iv) The British economy crumbled after the world war and cotton production and exports fell dramatically.
Ques 17: What is meant by Kabirlarai in Bengal? Why were these organized?
Ans: In Bengali language, 'Kabi' means poet and 'larai' means contest. Thus, the word Kabirlarai means contest of the poets or poetry contests. These were a popular form of entertainment. These were usually patronized and encouraged by the rich people of Calcutta for entertainment. In Kabirlarai, two persons who were lyricist and composer at the same time, answered each other in form of songs. It was also referred to as 'Kabigan'. The flourishing period of the Kabiwalas was between 1760 and 1830 in Bengal. The famous 19th century 'Kabiwalas' of Calcutta were Haru Thakur, Nitai Vairagi, Ram Basu, Bhola Maira and Anthony Firinghee. However, while Kabigan lost its supremacy in Calcutta, it retained its position in the villages of West Bengal.
Ques 18: Why is the public sector required to provide certain things at a reasonable cost?
Ans: The public sector is required to provide certain things at a reasonable cost because
(i) The aim of public sector is not just to earn profits but to consider the social benefit also.
(ii) There are various things needed by the society as a whole, but the private sector will not be able to provide at a reasonable cost.
(iii) Some of these need spending large sums of money, which is beyond the capacity of the private sector. Thus, government have to undertake such heavy spending and ensure that these facilities are available for all.
Ques 19: In many cities of India today, there are moves to clear away the slums where poor people live. Discuss whether or not it is the responsibility of the government to make arrangements for houses for these people.
Ans: Yes, it is definitely the social responsibility of the government to make arrangements for housing for these people, although some part of the cost of the houses should be charged from them, otherwise they will not be involved in the scheme initiated by the government. The slums should be cleared because they lack sanitation, are the hub of epidemic diseases and prone to be a fire hazard.
Ques 20: The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues Wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
Ans: The workers in the unorganized sector need protection for wages, safety and health. Wages Workers in the unorganized sector are often exploited and not paid a fair wage. Their earnings are low and not regular. So, they need protection. They must be given fair wages, so that they may support their family comfortably. Safety There are several workers who have to work in mines or cracker factory. In most of the cases there is no safety measurement taken by the authority. This matter should be treated seriously and the required safety measurement should be taken. Health Long working hours, unhygienic working conditions pose great threats to the health of the workers. Health factor should be treated carefully.
Ques 21: Write short notes on
(a) The Gutenberg Press
(b) The Erasmus's idea of the printed book
Ans: (a) The Gutenberg Press 'Gutenberg' press was the first printing press of Europe. It was invented by Johann Gutenberg of Strasbourg. He grew up in a large agricultural estate and had knowledge and experience in operating olive and wine presses. The olive press provided him the model for the printing press and he used moulds for casting metal types for letters of the alphabet. He invented the printing press around the year 1448.
(b) Erasmus's Idea of the Printed Book Erasmus, a latin scholar, was not happy with printing of books because he was afraid that this would lead to circulation of books with rebellious ideas. He felt that although a few books may give useful information, the majority of books may be just useless or give stupid, scandalous or irreligious ideas which may lead to incitement of rebellion.
Ques 22: What historical change has secured in the importance of the three sectors in developed countries?
Ans: At initial stage of development primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity. As agricultural sector began to develop, it produced much more food than before. Many people began to take up other profession. As new methods of manufacturing were introduced, factories came up and started expanding. Now people began to work in factories in large numbers.
Secondary sector gradually became the most important in total production and employment. In the past 100 years, there was a further shift from secondary to tertiary sector in developed countries. This sector has become the most important in terms of total production. Most of the working people are employed in this sector. This is the general pattern observed in most of the developed countries.
Ques 23: Describe in brief the process by which the British nation came into existence.
Ans: There was no British nation before the eighteenth century. Different ethnic groups of people were there in the British Isles, such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. Each of these ethnic groups had its own cultural and political traditions. The British Parliament became the Chief instrument to curb the power of the monarchy in 1688 through a bloodless revolution. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. With the advent of English power, the English removed the cultural, political institutions of Scotland forcefully and the Scots were banned from speaking the Gaelic language and put on their national dress. The English with the help of the Protestants suppressed the Catholics of Ireland and forcibly united Ireland with the United Kingdom in 1801. Scotland and Ireland become the subordinate partners of the United Kingdom. The symbols of the new Britain-the National Flag (Union Jack), the National Anthem (God Save our Noble King) and the English language were actively promoted.
Ques 24: Which were the factors that led to the weakening of the caste hierarchy in India?
Ans: The factors that have led to the weakening of the caste hierarchy in India are
(i) Due to the efforts of the Social reformers and partly due to socio-economic changes castes and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes.
(ii) Economic growth and large scale urbanization has also contributed to the weakening of the caste system. Most of the time in urban areas, it does not matter who is walking along next to us in the street or eating at the next table in a restaurant.
(iii) Occupational mobility has also made it's contribution and with the weakening of the position of the landlords in the villages the old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down.
(iv) The Constitution of India has prohibited any caste based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.
Ques 25: Describe the various methods to check the spread of communalism in India,
Ans: The following methods should be adopted to check the spread of communalism
(i) Political parties based on religion should be banned immediately.
(ii) Communal organizations like the Hindu Mahasabha should be banned.
(iii) Religious places should not be allowed to be converted into places of religious fanaticism and for spreading communalism.
(iv) Disputed religious places should be converted into national monuments.
(v) India's history should be written in proper perspective.
(vi) Inter-religious marriages should be encouraged.
(vii) Through the use of mass media, people should be taught to respect the religious feelings of one another. Press, radio, television and cinema should be used for this.
(viii) Religious and moral education based on good things of all the religions should be given to students in schools and colleges.