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Demographics of India

This article is about the people from India. For other uses, see Indian (disambiguation).

India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the United Nations in July 2016, the population stood at 1,326,801,576

India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2022, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.7 billion by 2050. Thus, India is expected to become the first political entity in history to be home to more than 1.5 billion people. Its population growth rate is 1.2%, ranking 94th in the world in 2013. The Indian population reached the billion mark in 1998.

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.

_________________________________________________________________

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Map showing the population density of each district in India.

Population1,326,801,576 (July 2016 est.)
Density382 people per.sq.km (2011 est.)
Growth rateDemographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev 1.19% (2016) (96th)
Birth rate19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Life expectancy68.89 years (2009 est.)
 • male67.46 years (2009 est.)
 • female72.61 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate2.3 children born/woman (SRS 2013)
Infant mortality rate40 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Sex ratio
Age structure
0–14 years31.2% (male 190,075,426/female 172,799,553) (2009 est.)
15–64 years63.6% (male 381,446,079/female 359,802,209) (2009 est.)
65 and over5.3% (male 29,364,920/female 32,591,030) (2009 est.)
At birth1.10 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Under 151.10 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
15–64 years1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
65 and over0.90 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Crude birth rate trends in India (per 1000 people, national average

 

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Infant mortality rate trends in India (per 1000 births, under age 1, national average)

______________________________________________________________________________

History

It has been estimated that the population was about 100 million in 1600 and remained nearly static until the late 19th century. It reached 255 million according to the first census taken in 1881.

Studies of India's population since 1881 have focused on such topics as total population, birth and death rates, growth rates, geographic distribution, literacy, the rural and urban divide, cities of a million, and the three cities with populations over eight million: Delhi, Greater Mumbai (Bombay), and Kolkata (Calcutta).

Mortality rates fell in the period 1920–45, primarily due to biological immunisation. Other factors included rising incomes, better living conditions, improved nutrition, a safer and cleaner environment, and better official health policies and medical care.

Salient features

India occupies 2.41% of the world's land area but supports over 18% of the world's population. At the 2001 census 72.2% of the population lived in about 638,000 villages and the remaining 27.8% lived in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.

India's population has exceeded that of the entire continent of Africa by 200 million people. However, because Africa's population growth is nearly double that of India, it is expected to surpass both China and India by 2025.

Comparative demographics

CategoryGlobal RankingReferences
 

Comparative demographics

 
Area7th 
Population2nd 
Population growth rate102nd of 212in 2010
Population density24th of 212in 2010
Male to Female ratio, at birth12th of 214in 2009

 

List of states and union territories by demographics

Main article: List of States and Union Territories by demographics

 

Population growth of India per decade

 
Census YearPopulationChange (%)
1951361,088,000
1961439,235,00021.6
1971548,160,00024.8
1981683,329,00024.7
1991846,387,88823.9
20011,028,737,43621.5
20111,210,726,93217.7

 

 

Total (India)1,210,854,977100623,724,248586,469,174943833,087,662377,105,7603,287,240382
 

Population distribution by states/union territories (2011)

 
RankState/UTPopulationPercent (%)MaleFemaleSex RatioRuralUrbanArea (km2)Density (per km2)
1Uttar Pradesh199,812,34116.50104,480,51095,331,831930155,111,02244,470,455240,928828
2Maharashtra112,374,3339.2858,243,05654,131,27792961,545,44150,827,531307,713365
3Bihar104,099,4528.6054,278,15749,821,29591892,075,02811,729,60994,1631,102
4West Bengal91,276,1157.5446,809,02744,467,08895062,213,67629,134,06088,7521,030
5Madhya Pradesh72,626,8096.0037,612,30635,014,50393152,537,89920,059,666308,245236
6Tamil Nadu72,147,0305.9636,137,97536,009,05599637,189,22934,949,729130,058555
7Rajasthan68,548,4375.6635,550,99732,997,44092851,540,23617,080,776342,239201
8Karnataka61,095,2975.0530,966,65730,128,64097337,552,52923,578,175191,791319
9Gujarat60,439,6924.9931,491,26028,948,43291934,670,81725,712,811196,024308
10Andhra Pradesh49,386,7994.0824,738,06824,648,73199634,776,38914,610,410160,205308
11Odisha41,974,2183.4721,212,13620,762,08297934,951,2346,996,124155,707269
12Telangana35,193,9782.9117,704,07817,489,90098821,585,31313,608,665114,840307
13Kerala33,406,0612.7616,027,41217,378,649108417,445,50615,932,17138,863859
14Jharkhand32,988,1342.7216,930,31516,057,81994825,036,9467,929,29279,714414
15Assam31,205,5762.5815,939,44315,266,13395826,780,5264,388,75678,438397
16Punjab27,743,3382.2914,639,46513,103,87389517,316,80010,387,43650,362550
17Chhattisgarh25,545,1982.1112,832,89512,712,30399119,603,6585,936,538135,191189
18Haryana25,351,4622.0913,494,73411,856,72887916,531,4938,821,58844,212573
19Delhi (UT)16,787,9411.398,887,3267,800,615868944,72712,905,7801,48411,297
20Jammu and Kashmir12,541,3021.046,640,6625,900,6408899,134,8203,414,106222,23656
21Uttarakhand10,086,2920.835,137,7734,948,5199637,025,5833,091,16953,483189
22Himachal Pradesh6,864,6020.573,481,8733,382,7299726,167,805688,70455,673123
23Tripura3,673,9170.301,874,3761,799,5419602,710,051960,98110,486350
24Meghalaya2,966,8890.251,491,8321,475,0579892,368,971595,03622,429132
25Manipur2,721,7560.221,290,1711,280,2199921,899,624822,13222,327122
26Nagaland1,978,5020.161,024,649953,8539311,406,861573,74116,579119
27Goa1,458,5450.12739,140719,405973551,414906,3093,702394
28Arunachal Pradesh1,383,7270.11713,912669,8159381,069,165313,44683,74317
29Puducherry (UT)1,247,9530.10612,511635,4421037394,341850,1234792,598
30Mizoram1,097,2060.09555,339541,867976529,037561,99721,08152
31Chandigarh (UT)1,055,4500.09580,663474,78781829,0041,025,6821149,252
32Sikkim610,5770.05323,070287,507890455,962151,7267,09686
33Andaman and Nicobar Islands (UT)380,5810.03202,871177,710876244,411135,5338,24946
34Dadra and Nagar Haveli (UT)343,7090.03193,760149,949774183,024159,829491698
35Daman and Diu (UT)243,2470.02150,30192,94661860,331182,5801122,169
36Lakshadweep (UT)64,4730.0133,12331,35094614,12150,308322,013

 

Religious demographics

Main article: Religion in India

 

The table below summarises India's demographics (excluding the Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results) according to religion at the 2011 census in per cent. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); the 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and the 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

 

 

Religions of India (Census 2011)

 
ReligionPopulationPercent (%)
All1,210,854,977100.00
Hindus966,378,86879.80
Muslims172,245,15814.23
Christians27,819,5882.30
Sikhs20,833,1161.72
Buddhists8,442,9720.70
Jains4,451,7530.37
Others7,937,7340.66
Not stated2,867,3030.24

 

Religious
group
Population (2011)
%
Growth
(2001-2011)
Sex ratio (2011)
(total)
Sex ratio (2011)
(rural
Sex ratio (2011)
(urban)
Sex ratio (2011)
(child))
Literacy (2011)
(%)
Work participation (2011)
(%)
Hinduism79.80%16.8%93994692191373.3%41.0%
Islam14.23%24.6%95195794194368.5%32.6%
Christianity2.30%15.5%10231008104695884.5%41.9%
Sikhism1.72%8.4%90390589882875.4%36.3%
Buddhism0.70%6.1%96596097393381.3%43.1%
Jainism0.37%5.4%95493595988994.9%35.5%
Others/Religion not specified0.90%n/a959947975974n/an/a

 

 

Population composition trend by religion (1951–2011)

 
Religion1951 (%)1961 (%)1971 (%)1981 (%)1991 (%)2001 (%)2011 (%)
Hinduism84.1083.4582.7382.3081.5380.4679.80
Islam9.8010.6911.2111.7512.6113.4314.23
Christianity2.302.442.602.442.322.342.30
Sikhism1.791.791.891.921.941.871.72
Buddhism0.740.740.700.700.770.770.70
Jainism0.460.460.480.470.400.410.37
Zoroastrianism0.130.090.090.090.080.06NA
Others0.430.430.410.420.440.720.90

 

 Neonatal and infant demographics

The table below represents the infant mortality rate trends in India, based on gender, over the last 15 years. In the urban areas of India, average male infant mortality rates are slightly higher than average female infant mortality rates

 

___________________________________________________________

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Male to female sex ratio for India, based on its official census data, from 1941 through 2011.[42] The data suggests the existence of high sex ratios before and after the arrival of ultrasound-based prenatal care and sex screening technologies in India.

___________________________________________________________

 

YearMaleFemale
 

Infant mortality rate trend (deaths per 1000)

 
19987074
20055658
20094952

 


Some activists believe India's 2011 census shows a serious decline in the number of girls under the age of seven – activists fear eight million female fetuses may have been aborted between 2001 and 2011. These claims are controversial. Scientists who study human sex ratios and demographic trends suggest that birth sex ratio between 1.08 and 1.12 can be because of natural factors, such as the age of mother at baby's birth, age of father at baby's birth, number of babies per couple, economic stress, endocrinological factors, etc. The 2011 census birth sex ratio in India, of 917 girls to 1000 boys, is similar to 870–930 girls to 1000 boys birth sex ratios observed in Japanese, Chinese, Cuban, Filipino and Hawaiian ethnic groups in the United States between 1940 and 2005. They are also similar to birth sex ratios below 900 girls to 1000 boys observed in mothers of different age groups and gestation periods in the United States.

 

Population within the age group of 0–6

Total (India)158,789,28782,952,13575,837,152
 

Population between age 0–6 by state/union territory

 
State/UT CodeState/UTTotalMaleFemale
1Jammu and Kashmir2,008,6701,080,662927,982
2Himachal Pradesh763,864400,681363,183
3Punjab2,941,5701,593,2621,348,308
4Chandigarh117,95363,18754,766
5Uttarakhand1,328,844704,769624,075
6Haryana3,297,7241,802,0471,495,677
7Delhi1,970,5101,055,735914,775
8Rajasthan10,504,9165,580,2124,924,004
9Uttar Pradesh29,728,23515,653,17514,075,060
10Bihar18,582,2299,615,2808,966,949
11Sikkim61,07731,41829,659
12Arunachal Pradesh202,759103,43099,330
13Nagaland285,981147,111138,870
14Manipur353,237182,684170,553
15Mizoram165,53683,96581,571
16Tripura444,055227,354216,701
17Meghalaya555,822282,189273,633
18Assam4,511,3072,305,0882,206,219
19West Bengal10,112,5995,187,2644,925,335
20Jharkhand5,237,5822,695,9212,541,661
21Odisha5,035,6502,603,2082,432,442
22Chhattisgarh3,584,0281,824,9871,759,041
23Madhya Pradesh10,548,2955,516,9575,031,338
24Gujarat7,564,4643,974,2863,519,890
25Daman and Diu25,88013,55612,314
26Dadra and Nagar Haveli49,19625,57523,621
27Maharashtra12,848,3756,822,2626,026,113
28Andhra Pradesh8,642,6864,448,3304,194,356
29Karnataka6,855,8013,527,8443,327,957
30Goa139,49572,66966,826
31Lakshadweep7,0883,7153,373
32Kerala3,322,2471,695,8891,626,358
33Tamil Nadu6,894,8213,542,3513,352,470
34Puducherry127,61064,93262,678
35Andaman and Nicobar Islands39,49720,09419,403

 

Population above the age of 7

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Total (India)1,051,404,135540,772,113510,632,022
 

Population above the age of 7 by state/union territory

 
State/UT CodeState/UTTotalMaleFemale
1Jammu and Kashmir
2Himachal Pradesh
3Punjab
4Chandigarh
5Uttarakhand
6Haryana22,055,35711,703,08310,352,274
7Delhi14,782,7257,920,6756,862,050
8Rajasthan58,116,09630,039,87428,076,222
9Uttar Pradesh169,853,24288,943,24080,910,002
10Bihar85,222,40844,570,06740,652,341
11Sikkim546,611290,243256,368
12Arunachal Pradesh1,179,852616,802563,050
13Nagaland1,694,621878,596816,025
14Manipur2,368,5191,187,0801,181,439
15Mizoram925,478468,374457,104
16Tripura3,226,9771,644,5131,582,464
17Meghalaya2,408,1851,210,4791,197,706
18Assam26,657,96513,649,83913,008,126
19West Bengal81,235,13741,740,12539,495,012
20Jharkhand27,728,65614,235,76713,492,889
21Odisha36,911,70818,598,47018,313,238
22Chhattisgarh21,956,16811,002,92810,953,240
23Madhya Pradesh62,049,27032,095,96329,953,307
24Gujarat52,889,45227,507,99625,381,456
25Daman and Diu217,031136,54480,487
26Dadra and Nagar Haveli293,657167,603126,054
27Maharashtra99,524,59751,539,13547,985,462
28Andhra Pradesh76,022,84738,061,55137,961,296
29Karnataka54,274,90327,529,89826,745,005
30Goa1,318,228668,042650,186
31Lakshadweep57,34129,39127,950
32Kerala
33Tamil Nadu65,244,13732,616,52032,627,617
34Puducherry1,116,854545,553571,301
35Andaman and Nicobar Islands340,447182,236158,211

 

 Literacy rate

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Overall (India)74.0382.1465.46
 

Literacy rate by state/union territory

 
State/UT CodeState/UTOverall (%)Male (%)Female (%)
1Jammu and Kashmir86.6187.2686.23
2Himachal Pradesh83.7890.8376.60
3Punjab76.6081.4871.34
4Chandigarh86.4390.5481.38
5Uttarakhand79.6388.3370.70
6Haryana76.6485.3866.77
7Delhi86.3491.0380.93
8Rajasthan67.0680.5152.66
9Uttar Pradesh69.7279.2459.26
10Bihar63.8273.3953.33
11Sikkim82.2087.2976.43
12Arunachal Pradesh66.9573.6959.57
13Nagaland80.1183.2976.69
14Manipur79.8586.4973.17
15Mizoram91.5893.7289.40
16Tripura87.7592.1883.15
17Meghalaya75.4877.1773.78
18Assam73.1878.8167.27
19West Bengal77.0882.6771.16
20Jharkhand67.6378.4556.21
21Odisha72.9082.4064.36
22Chhattisgarh71.0481.4560.59
23Madhya Pradesh70.6380.5360.02
24Gujarat79.3187.2370.73
25Daman and Diu87.0791.4879.59
26Dadra and Nagar Haveli77.6586.4665.93
27Maharashtra83.2089.8275.48
28Andhra Pradesh67.6675.5659.74
29Karnataka75.6082.8568.13
30Goa87.4092.8181.84
31Lakshadweep92.2896.1188.25
32Kerala93.9196.0291.98
33Tamil Nadu80.3386.8173.86
34Puducherry86.5592.1281.22
35Andaman and Nicobar Islands86.2790.1181.84

 

 

Linguistic demographics

Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in India

41.03% of the Indians speak Hindi while the rest speak Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and a variety of other languages.

The table immediately below excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results.

 

RankLanguageSpeakersPercentage (%)
 

Languages of India by number of native speakers at the 2001 census

 
1Hindi dialects422,048,64241.030
2Bengali83,369,7698.110
3Telugu74,002,8567.190
4Marathi71,936,8946.990
5Tamil60,793,8145.910
6Urdu51,536,1115.010
7Gujarati46,091,6174.480
8Kannada37,924,0113.690
9Malayalam33,066,3923.210
10Odia33,017,4463.210
11Punjabi29,102,4772.830
12Assamese13,168,4841.280
13Maithili12,179,1221.180
14Bhili/Bhilodi9,582,9570.930
15Santali6,469,6000.630
16Kashmiri5,527,6980.540
17Nepali2,871,7490.280
18Gondi2,713,7900.260
19Sindhi2,535,4850.250
20Konkani2,489,0150.240
21Dogri2,282,5890.220
22Khandeshi2,075,2580.200
23Kurukh1,751,4890.170
24Tulu1,722,7680.170
25Meitei (Manipuri)1,466,7050.140
26Bodo1,350,4780.130
27Khasi – Garo1,128,5750.112
28Mundari1,061,3520.105
29Ho1,042,7240.103

 


 Largest cities

 RankNameState/UTPop.RankNameState/UTPop. 

Largest cities or towns in India
Census India, 2011 


Mumbai

Delhi
1MumbaiMaharashtra12,478,44711JaipurRajasthan3,073,350
Bengaluru

Hyderabad
2DelhiDelhi11,007,83512KanpurUttar Pradesh2,920,067
3BengaluruKarnataka8,425,97013LucknowUttar Pradesh2,901,474
4HyderabadTelangana6,809,97014NagpurMaharashtra2,405,421
5AhmedabadGujarat5,570,58515IndoreMadhya Pradesh1,960 521
6ChennaiTamil Nadu4,681,08716ThaneMaharastra1,818,872
7KolkataWest Bengal4,486,67917BhopalMadhya Pradesh1,795,648
8SuratGujarat4,462,00218VisakhapatnamAndhra Pradesh1,730,320
9VaranasiUttar Pradesh3,676,84119Pimpri-ChinchwadMaharashtra1,729,359
10PuneMaharashtra3,115,43120PatnaBihar1,683,200

 

 

Vital statistics

UN estimates


 

United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2015 revision – India

 
PeriodBirths per yearDeaths per yearNatural change per yearCBR1CDR1NC1TFR1IMR1
2010–201520.47.414.02.48
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
1950–195516,832,0009,928,0006,904,00043.325.517.75.90165.0
1955–196017,981,0009,686,0008,295,00042.122.719.45.90153.1
1960–196519,086,0009,358,0009,728,00040.419.820.65.82140.1
1965–197020,611,0009,057,00011,554,00039.217.222.05.69128.5
1970–197522,022,0008,821,00013,201,00037.515.022.55.26118.0
1975–198024,003,0008,584,00015,419,00036.313.023.34.89106.4
1980–198525,577,0008,763,00016,814,00034.511.822.74.4795.0
1985–199026,935,0009,073,00017,862,00032.510.921.54.1185.1
2000–200527,158,0009,545,00017,614,00025.38.416.93.1460.7
2005–201027,271,0009,757,00017,514,00022.97.915.02.8052.9
1995–200027,443,0009,458,00017,985,00027.29.417.83.3168.9
1990–199527,566,0009,400,00018,166,00030.010.219.83.7276.4

Census of India: sample registration system

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

 Total fertility rate map: average births per woman by states and union territories, 2012

 

  Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Total fertility rate map: average births per woman by districts, 2011

 

 

 

Census of India: sample registration system

 
YearAverage population
(x 1000)
Live births1Deaths1Natural changeCrude birth rate
(per 1000)
Crude death rate
(per 1000)
Natural change
(per 1000)
Total fertility rate
1981716,49324,289,0008,956,00015,333,00033.912.521.4
1982733,15224,781,0008,725,00016,056,00033.811.921.9
1983750,03425,276,0008,925,00016,351,00033.711.921.8
1984767,14726,006,0009,666,00016,340,00033.912.621.3
1985784,49125,810,0009,257,00016,553,00032.911.821.1
1986802,05226,147,0008,903,00017,244,00032.611.121.5
1987819,80026,316,0008,936,00017,380,00032.110.921.2
1988837,70026,388,0009,215,00017,173,00031.511.020.5
1989855,70726,185,0008,814,00017,371,00030.610.320.3
1990873,78526,388,0008,476,00017,912,00030.29.720.53.80
1991891,91026,133,0008,741,00017,392,00029.39.819.5
1992910,06526,392,0009,192,00017,200,00029.010.118.9
1993928,22626,640,0008,633,00018,007,00028.79.319.4
1994946,37327,161,0008,801,00018,360,00028.79.319.4
1995964,48627,295,0008,680,00018,615,00028.39.019.33.50
1996982,55326,824,0008,745,00018,079,00027.38.918.4
19971,000,55827,215,0008,905,00018,310,00027.28.918.3
19981,018,47126,989,0009,166,00017,823,00026.59.017.5
19991,036,25926,943,0009,015,00017,928,00026.08.717.3
20001,053,89827,191,0008,958,00018,233,00025.88.517.33.20
20011,071,37427,213,0009,000,00018,213,00025.48.417.0
20021,088,69427,217,0008,818,00018,399,00025.08.116.9
20031,105,88627,426,0008,847,00018,579,00024.88.016.8
20041,122,99127,064,0008,422,00018,642,00024.17.516.6
20051,140,04327,133,0008,664,00018,469,00023.87.616.22.90
20061,157,03927,190,0008,678,00018,512,00023.57.516.0
20071,134,02426,195,9548,391,77817,804,17623.17.415.7
20081,150,19626,224,4698,511,45017,713,01922.87.415.42.60
20091,166,22826,240,1308,513,46417,726,66622.57.315.22.60
20101,182,10826,124,5878,511,17817,613,40922.17.214.92.50
20111,197,65826,108,9448,503,37217,605,57221.87.114.72.44
20121,212,82726,197,0638,489,78917,707,27421.67.014.62.40
20131,227,01226,258,0578,589,08417,668,97321.47.014.42.30
20141,233,54225,904,3778,264,73017,639,64721.06.714.32.30

1 The numbers of births and deaths were calculated from the birth and death rates and the average population.

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (09.02.2011) (Census) (Includes data for the Indian-held part of Jammu and Kashmir, the final status of which has not yet been determined):

Total623,270,258587,584,7191,210,854,977100.00
 

Population by age group

 
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercentage (%)
0–458,632,07454,174,704112,806,7789.32
5–966,300,46660,627,660126,928,12610.48
10–1469,418,83563,290,377132,709,21210.96
15–1963,982,39656,544,053120,526,4499.95
20–2457,584,69353,839,529111,424,2229.20
25–2951,344,20850,069,757101,413,9658.38
30–3444,660,67443,934,27788,594,9517.32
35–3942,919,38142,221,30385,140,6847.03
40–4437,545,38634,892,72672,438,1125.98
45–4932,138,11430,180,21362,318,3275.15
50–5425,843,26623,225,98849,069,2544.05
55–5919,456,01219,690,04339,146,0553.23
60–6418,701,74918,961,95837,663,7073.11
65–6912,944,32613,510,65726,454,9832.18
70–749,651,4999,557,34319,208,8421.59
75–794,490,6034,741,9009,232,5030.76
80–842,927,0403,293,1896,220,2290.51
85–891,120,1061,263,0612,383,1670.20
90–94652,465794,0691,446,5340.12
95–99294,759338,538633,2970.05
100+289,325316,453605,7780.05
Unknown2,372,8812,116,9214,489,8020.37

Fertility rate

From the Demographic Health Survey

YearCBR – TotalTFR – Total1CBR – UrbanTFR – Urban1CBR – RuralTFR – Rural1
 

Crude Birth Rate and Total Fertility Rate (Wanted Fertility Rate)

 
1992–199328.73.39 (2.64)24.12.70 (2.09)30.43.67 (2.86)
1998–199924.82.85 (2.13)20.92.27 (1.73)26.23.07 (2.28)
2003–200523.12.68 (1.90)18.82.06 (1.60)25.02.98 (2.10)

CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman). 1Number in parenthesis represents the wanted fertility rate

Regional vital statistics

 

Birth Rate, Death Rate, Natural Growth Rate, and Infant Mortality Rate, by state/UT (2010) 

 
State/UTBirth RateDeath RateNatural Growth RateInfant Mortality Rate
TotalRuralUrbanTotalRuralUrbanTotalRuralUrbanTotalRuralUrban
Andaman and Nicobar Islands15.615.515.84.34.83.311.310.712.6252918
Andhra Pradesh17.918.316.77.68.65.410.29.711.3465133
Arunachal Pradesh20.522.114.65.96.92.314.615.212.3313412
Assam23.224.415.88.28.65.814.915.810.1586036
Bihar28.128.822.06.87.05.621.321.816.4484938
Chandigarh15.621.615.03.93.73.911.617.911.0222023
Chhattisgarh25.326.818.68.08.46.217.318.412.4515244
Dadra and Nagar Haveli26.626.028.64.75.13.321.920.925.3384322
Daman and Diu18.819.118.34.94.94.813.914.213.6231929
Delhi17.819.717.54.24.64.113.615.013.4303729
Goa13.212.613.76.68.15.76.64.58.0101010
Gujarat21.823.319.46.77.55.515.115.814.0445130
Haryana22.323.319.86.67.05.615.716.314.3485138
Himachal Pradesh16.917.511.56.97.24.210.010.37.3404129
Jammu and Kashmir18.319.513.55.75.94.712.613.68.8434532
Jharkhand25.326.719.37.07.45.418.319.313.9424430
Karnataka19.220.217.57.18.15.412.112.112.1384328
Kerala14.814.814.87.07.16.77.87.78.1131410
Lakshadweep14.315.513.26.46.16.78.09.56.5252327
Madhya Pradesh27.329.220.58.39.06.018.920.214.5626742
Maharashtra17.117.616.46.57.55.310.610.211.1283420
Manipur14.914.815.34.24.34.010.710.511.314159
Meghalaya24.526.614.87.98.45.616.618.29.2555837
Mizoram17.121.113.04.55.43.712.515.79.3374721
Nagaland16.817.016.03.63.73.313.213.312.7232420
Odisha20.521.415.28.69.06.611.912.48.6616343
Puducherry16.716.716.77.48.27.09.38.59.6222521
Punjab16.617.215.67.07.75.89.69.59.8343728
Rajasthan26.727.922.96.76.96.020.020.916.9556131
Sikkim17.818.116.15.65.93.812.312.312.3303119
Tamil Nadu15.916.015.87.68.26.98.37.88.9242522
Tripura14.915.611.55.04.85.79.910.85.8272919
Uttar Pradesh28.329.224.28.18.56.320.220.717.9616444
Uttarakhand19.320.216.26.36.75.113.013.511.1384125
West Bengal16.818.611.96.06.06.310.712.65.6313225

 

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

Demographics of India - UPSC/IAS Exam UPSC Notes | EduRev

Map showing the population density in India, per 2011 Census

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total population

1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA); 1,210 million (2011 census)

Rural population

72.2%; male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 census)

Age structure

0–14 years: 30.8%; male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64.3%; male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%; male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)

Median age

25.1 years

Population growth rate

1.548% (2009 est.)

Literacy rate

74% (age 7 and above, in 2011)
81.4% (total population, age 15–25, in 2006)

Per cent of population below poverty line

22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.8%

Net migration rate

−0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
Under 10 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
24–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 65.8 years (source: UN Human Development Report, 2013)

Total fertility rate

2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.), although more up-to-date statistics indicate that India's TFR was 2.6 in 2008

The TFR (total number of children born per women) by religion in 2005-2006 was: Hindus, 2.7; Muslims, 3.1; Christians, 2.4; and Sikhs, 2.0.

Religions

Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.8%, Buddhists 0.8%, Jains 0.4%, others 0.7%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

Scheduled castes and tribes

Scheduled castes: 16.6% (2011 census); scheduled tribes: 8.6% (2011 census)

Languages

There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million, and the second largest is Bengali. 22 languages are recognised as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.

 

Population projections

India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and political instability. Note that these projections make assumptions about future fertility and death rates which may not turn out to be correct in the event. Fertility rates also vary from region to region, with some higher than the national average and some lower.

Source:

  • 2020: 1,326,093,000
  • 2030: 1,460,743,000
  • 2040: 1,571,715,000
  • 2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 estimate

In millions (example: 361 = 361,000,000)

Source:

YearUnder 1515–6465+Total
2000361604451010
2005368673511093
2010370747581175
2015372819651256
202037388276

1332

Ethnic groups

See also: South Asian ethnic groups, Ethnic relations in India, Historical definitions of races in India, and Caste system in India

The national Census of India does not recognise racial or ethnic groups within India, but recognises many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India).

According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about 1,200–3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India.

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighbouring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent.

Genetics

See also: Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of South Asia

Y-chromosome DNA

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarised as follows where haplogroups R-M420, H, R2, L and NOP comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.

  • H ~ 30%
  • R1a ~ 20%
  • R2 ~ 15%
  • L ~ 10%
  • NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is primarily made up of Haplogroup M

  • Haplogroup M ~ 60%
  • Haplogroup UK ~ 15%
  • Haplogroup N ~ 25% (Excluding UK)

Autosomal DNA

Numerous genomic studies have been conducted in the last 15 years to seek insights into India's demographic and cultural diversity. These studies paint a complex and conflicting picture.

  • In a 2003 study, Basu, Majumder et al. have concluded on the basis of results obtained from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the Austroasiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austroasiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian speaking populations were possibly widespread throughout India but are regulated to South India now ; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities."
  • In a later 2010 review article, Majumder affirms some of these conclusions, introduces and revises some other. The ongoing studies, concludes Majumder, suggest India has served as the major early corridor for geographical dispersal of modern humans from out-of-Africa. The archaeological and genetic traces of the earliest settlers in India has not provided any conclusive evidence. The tribal populations of India are older than the non-tribal populations. The autosomal differentiation and genetic diversity within India's caste populations at 0.04 is significantly lower than 0.14 for continental populations and 0.09 for 31 world population sets studied by Watkins et al., suggesting that while tribal populations were differentiated, the differentiation effects within India's caste population was less than previously thought. Majumder also concludes that recent studies suggest India has been a major contributor to the gene pool of southeast Asia.
  • Another study covering a large sample of Indian populations allowed Watkins et al. to examine eight Indian caste groups and four endogamous south Indian tribal populations. The Indian castes data show low between-group differences, while the tribal Indian groups show relatively high between-group differentiation. This suggests that people between Indian castes were not reproductively isolated, while Indian tribal populations experienced reproductive isolation and drift. Furthermore, the genetic fixation index data shows historical genetic differentiation and segregation between Indian castes population is much smaller than those found in east Asia, Africa and other continental populations; while being similar to the genetic differentiation and segregation observed in European populations.
  • In 2006, Sahoo et al. reported their analysis of genomic data on 936 Y-chromosomes representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from different regions of India. These scientists find that the haplogroup frequency distribution across the country, between different caste groups, was found to be predominantly driven by geographical, rather than cultural determinants. They conclude there is clear evidence for both large-scale immigration into ancient India of Sino-Tibetan speakers and language change of former Austroasiatic speakers, in the northeast Indian region.
  • The genome studies conducted up until 2010 have been on relatively small population sets. Many are from just one southeastern state of Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana, which was part of the state until June 2014). Thus, any conclusions on demographic history of India must be interpreted with caution. A larger national genome study with demographic growth and sex ratio balances may offer further insights on the extent of genetic differentiation and segregation in India over the millenniums. 
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