Q.1. Match the following structures with their respective location in organs.
| (A) Crypts of Lieberkuhn|| (i) Pancreas|
| (B) Glisson’s Capsule|| (ii) Duodenum|
| (C) Islets of Langerhans|| (iii) Small intestine|
| (D) Brunner’s Glands|| (iv) Liver|
Select the correct option from the following: (2019)
Q.2. Identify the cells whose secretion protects the lining of gastro-intestinal tract from various enzymes. (2019)
(a) Duodenal cells
(b) Chief cells
(c) Goblet cells
(d) Oxyntic cells
Fig: Goblet CellGoblet cells or mucous cells are present throughout the epithelium of gastric glands and secrete mucus, which protects gastro-intestinal lining from enzymatic action.
Q.3. Match the items given in column I with those in column II and choose the correct option. (2019)
| Column I|| Column II|
|(A) Rennin||(i) Vitamin B12|
|(B) Enterokinase||(ii) Facilitated transport|
|(C) Oxyntic cells||(iii) Milk proteins|
|(D) Fructose||(iv) Trypsinogen|
(a) A-iii, B-iv, C-ii, D-i
(b) A-iv, B-iii, C-i, D-ii
(c) A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
(d) A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii
Q.4. Which of the following terms describes human dentition? (2018)
(a) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Homodont
(b) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont
(c) Pleurodont, Monophyodont, Homodont
(d) Pleurodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont
Majority of mammals including human beings erupt two sets of teeth during their lifetime, a set of temporary milk or deciduous teeth that is replaced by a set of permanent or adult teeth. This type of dentition is called diphyodont. An adult human has 32 permanent teeth which are of four different types (hctcrodont dentition), namely, incisors (1), canines (C), prcmolars (PM) and molars (M). Teeth are embedded in the sockets of the jaw bones which represents thecodont dentition.
Q.5. Which of the following gastric cells indirectly help in erythropoiesis? (2018)
(a) Chief cells
(b) Mucous cells
(c) Goblet cells
(d) Parietal cells
Fig: Parietal cell
Parietal or oxyntic cells secrete HC1 and Castle intrinsic factor. HC1 converts iron present in diet from ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous (Fe2+) form in which iron can be absorbed. Castle intrinsic factor is essential for (he absorption of vitamin B12. Iron, protein, vitamin B12 and lolic acid arc essential for the formation of RBCs and haemoglobin, hence parietal cells indirectly help in erythropoiesis.
Q.6. Which cells of ‘Crypts of Lieberkuhn’ secrete antibacterial lysozyme? (2017)
(a) Paneth cells
(b) Zymogen cells
(c) Kupffer cells
(d) Argentaffin cells
Paneth cells, present in the bottom of crypts of Lieberkuhn, are rich in zinc and contain acidophilic granules. There is evidence that these cells secrete antibacterial lysozyme. Zymogen cells or peptic cells are present in stomach and secrete pepsinogen. Kupffer cells are present in liver. They are phagocytic in nature and engulf disease causing microorganisms, dead cells, etc. Argentaffin cells, found in crypts of Lieberkuhn, synthesise hormone secretin and 5 - hydroxytryptamine.
Q.7. Which of the following options best represents the enzyme composition of pancreatic juice? (2017)
(a) Amylase, Pepsin, Trypsinogen, Maltase
(b) Peptidase, Amylase, Pepsin, Rennin
(c) Lipase, Amylase, Trypsinogen. Procarboxypeptidase
(d) Amylase, Peptidase, Trypsinogen, Rennin
The pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate, three proenzymes; trypsinosen, chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase and some enzymes such as elastase, pancreatic a-amylase, DNase, RNase and pancreatic lipase. It helps in the digestion of starch, proteins, fats and nucleic acids.
Q.8. A baby boy aged two years is admitted to play school and passes through a dental check-up. The demist observed that the boy had twenty teeth. Which teeth were absent? (2017)
Boy aged two years will have milk teeth Milk teeth of man include 8 incisors, 4 canines 8 molar. Premolars are absent.
Q.9. Which hormones do stimulate the production of pancreatic juice and bicarbonate? (2016)
(a) Angiotensin and epinephrine
(b) Gastrin and insulin
(c) Cholecystokinin and secretin
(d) Insulin and glucagon
Fig: Cholecystokinin and secretinCholecystokinin pancreozymin (CCKPZ) is a hormone secreted from small intestine. It stimulates the gall bladder to release bile and pancreas to secrete and release digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice. Hormone secretin is secreted from duodenum and releases bicarbonates in the pancreatic juice. It also increases secretion of bile and decreases gastric secretion and motility.
Q.10. In the stomach, gastric acid is secreted by the 
(a) Gastrin secreting cells
(b) Parietal cells
(c) Peptic cells
(d) Acidic cells
The main constituent of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid which is produced by parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) in the gastric glands in the stomach.
Q.11. Which of the following guards the opening of hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum? 
(a) Semilunar valve
(b) Ileocaecal valve
(c) Pyloric sphincter
(d) Sphincter of Oddi
The sphincter of Oddi (or hepatopancreatic sphincter) is a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum.
Q.12. Which of the following statements is not correct? 
(a) Goblet cells are present in the mucosa of intestine and secrete mucus
(b) Oxyntic cells are present in the mucosa of stomach and secrete HCl.
(c) Acini are present in the pancreas and secrete carboxypeptidase
(d) Brunner's glands are present in the submucosa of stomach and secrete pepsinogen
Duodenum contains Brunner’s glands which secrete mucus and digestive juices.
Q.13. Gastric juice of infants contains: 
(a) Nuclease, pepsinogen, lipase
(b) Pepsinogen, lipase, rennin
(c) Amylase, rennin, pepsinogen
(d) Maltase, pepsinogen, rennin
Gastric juice of infants contains pepsinogen, lipase and rennin. Gastric juice does not contain amylase, maltase & nuclease.
Q.14. The primary dentition in human differs from permanent dentition in not having one of the following type of teeth: 
The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. In humans, there are two premolars per quadrant in the permanent set of teeth, making eight premolars total in the mouth. The dental formula for milk teeth is 2102/2102 so premolars are absent in the primary dentition.
Q.15. The initial step in the digestion of milk in humans is carried out by 
Rennin (also called chymosin) is an enzyme that occurs in gastric juice and is a constituent of rennet. It coagulates milk by converting caseinogen to casein. The initial step in the digestion of milk in humans is carried out by rennin.
Q.16. Fructose is absorbed into the blood through mucosa cells of intestine by the process called: 
(a) Active transport
(b) Facilitated transport
(c) Simple diffusion
(d) Co-transport mechanism
Facilitated transport is a form of passive transport in which materials are moved across the plasma membrane by a transport protein down their concentration gradient; hence, it does not require energy.