Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers

NEET : Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

The document Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev is a part of the NEET Course Biology 31 Years NEET Chapterwise Solved Papers.
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Q1. The enzyme enterokinase helps in conversion of      [NEET 2020]
(a) Caseinogen into casein
(b) Pepsinogen into pepsin
(c) Protein into polypeptides
(d) Trypsinogen into trypsin

Correct Answer is Option (d) 
Trypsinogen is present in an inactive form in pancreatic juice. So enterokinase enzyme converts inactive trypsinogen to active trypsin. This in turn activates the other enzymes in the pancreatic juice.

Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRevEnterokinase Enzyme is a type of Brush Border Enzyme.

Q2. Identify the correct statement with reference to the human digestive system.     [NEET 2020]
(a) Ileum is a highly coiled part
(b) Vermiform appendix arises from duodenum
(c) Ileum opens into small intestine 
(d) Serosa is the innermost layer of the alimentary canal.

Correct Answer is Option (a)
(a) Small intestine is distinguishable into three regions, a ‘U’ shaped duodenum, a long coiled middle portion jejunum and a highly coiled ileum.
(b) A narrow finger-like tubular projection, the vermiform appendix which is a vestigial organ, arises from the caecum.
(c) Ileum opens into the large intestine.
(d) The wall of alimentary canal possesses four layers from outer to inner namely serosa, muscularis, submucosa and mucosa. Serosa is the outermost layer and mucosa is the innermost layer.

Q3. Goblet cells of alimentary canal are modified from:     [NEET 2020]
(a) Chondrocytes 
(b) Compound epithelial cells
(c) Squamous epithelial cells
(d) Columnar epithelial cells 

Correct Answer is Option (d)
Goblet cells are modified columnar epithelial cells. These are found in the lining of organs like respiratory tract and intestine. 

Q4. Match the following structures with their respective location in organs.
Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

Select the correct option from the following:    [NEET 2019]
Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

Correct Answer is Option (d)
Crypts of Lieberkhn are present in small intestine, Glisson's capsule is present in liver. Islets of Langerhans constitute the endocrine portion of pancreas. Brunner's glands are found in submucosa of duodenum.

So, the correct answer is '(A)-(iii), (B)-(iv), (C)-(i), (D)-(ii)

Q5. Identify the cells whose secretion protects the lining of the gastrointestinal tract from various enzymes.    [NEET 2019]
(a) Duodenal cells
(b) Chief cells
(c) Goblet cells
(d) Oxyntic cells

Correct Answer is Option (c) 
Goblet cells or mucous cells are present throughout the epithelium of gastric glands and secrete mucus, which protects the gastrointestinal lining from enzymatic action.

Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRevGoblet Cell

Q6. Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and choose the correct option.    [NEET 2019]
Digestion and Absorption 1 - From Past 28 Years Questions NEET Notes | EduRev

(a) A-iii, B-iv, C-ii, D-i
(b) A-iv, B-iii, C-i, D-ii
(c) A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
(d) A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii

Correct Answer is Option (d) 

  • Rennin, also called chymosin, protein-digesting enzyme that curdles milk by transforming caseinogen into insoluble casein; it is found only in the fourth stomach of cud-chewing animals, such as cows.
  • Enteropeptidase (also called enterokinase) is an enzyme produced by cells of the duodenum and is involved in digestion in humans and other animals. Enteropeptidase converts trypsinogen (a zymogen) into its active form trypsin, resulting in the subsequent activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes.
  • The intrinsic factor (IF) is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells (oxyntic cells) located at the gastric body and fundus. Intrinsic factor plays a crucial role in the transportation and absorption of the vital micronutrient vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) by the terminal ileum.
  • Fructose moves entirely via facilitated diffusion. The process utilises a different transporter to glucose when entering the enterocytes, however, both fructose and glucose utilise the same transporter to exit the enterocyte into the capillaries.

Q7. Which of the following terms describes human dentition?    [NEET 2018]
(a) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Homodont
(b) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont
(c) Pleurodont, Monophyodont, Homodont
(d) Pleurodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont

Correct Answer is Option (b)

  • The majority of mammals, including human beings, erupt two sets of teeth during their lifetime, a set of temporary milk or deciduous teeth that is replaced by a set of permanent or adult teeth. This type of dentition is called diphyodont. 
  • An adult human has 32 permanent teeth which are of four different types (heterodont dentition), namely, incisors (1), canines (C), premolars (PM), and molars (M). Teeth are embedded in the sockets of the jawbones, which represents the codont dentition.

Q8. Which of the following gastric cells indirectly help in erythropoiesis?    [NEET 2018]
(a) Chief cells
(b) Mucous cells
(c) Goblet cells
(d) Parietal cells

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Parietal or oxyntic cells secrete HC1 and Castle intrinsic factor. HC1 converts iron present in the diet from ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous (Fe2+) form in which iron can be absorbed. Castle intrinsic factor is essential for (the absorption of vitamin B12. Iron, protein, vitamin B12, and folic acid arc essential for the formation of RBCs and haemoglobin, hence parietal cells indirectly help in erythropoiesis.

Q9. Which cells of ‘Crypts of Lieberkuhn’ secrete antibacterial lysozyme?   [NEET 2017]
(a) Paneth cells
(b) Zymogen cells
(c) Kupffer cells
(d) Argentaffin cells

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Paneth cells, present in the bottom of crypts of Lieberkuhn, are rich in zinc and contain acidophilic granules. There is evidence that these cells secrete antibacterial lysozyme. Zymogen cells or peptic cells are present in the stomach and secrete pepsinogen. 

Kupffer cells are present in the liver. They are phagocytic in nature and engulf disease-causing microorganisms, dead cells, etc. Argentaffin cells, found in crypts of Lieberkuhn, synthesize hormone secretin and 5 - hydroxytryptamine.

Q10. Which of the following options best represents the enzyme composition of pancreatic juice?    [NEET 2017]
(a) Amylase, Pepsin, Trypsinogen, Maltase
(b) Peptidase, Amylase, Pepsin, Rennin
(c) Lipase, Amylase, Trypsinogen, Procarboxypeptidase
(d) Amylase, Peptidase, Trypsinogen, Rennin

Correct Answer is Option (c)
The pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate, three proenzymes: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase and some enzymes such as elastase, pancreatic a-amylase, DNase, RNase and pancreatic lipase. It helps in the digestion of starch, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids.

Q11. A baby boy aged two years is admitted to playschool and passes through a dental check-up. The demist observed that the boy had twenty teeth. Which teeth were absent?    [NEET 2017]
(a) Canines
(b) Pre-molars
(c) Molars
(d) Incisors

Correct Answer is Option (b)
Boy aged two years will have milk teeth of man include 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars. Premolars are absent.

Q12. Which hormones do stimulate the production of pancreatic juice and bicarbonate?     [NEET 2016]
(a) Angiotensin and epinephrine
(b) Gastrin and insulin
(c) Cholecystokinin and secretin
(d) Insulin and glucagon

Correct Answer is Option (c)
Cholecystokinin pancreozymins (CCKPZ) is a hormone secreted from the small intestine. It stimulates the gall bladder to release bile and the pancreas to secrete and release digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice. Hormone secretin is secreted from the duodenum and releases bicarbonates in the pancreatic juice. It also increases the secretion of bile and decreases gastric secretion and motility.

Q13. In the stomach, gastric acid is secreted by the    [NEET 2016]

(a) Gastrin secreting cells
(b) Parietal cells
(c) Peptic cells
(d) Acidic cells

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The main constituent of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid produced by parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) in the stomach's gastric glands.

Q14. Which of the following guards the opening of the hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum?      [NEET 2016] 

(a) Semilunar valve
(b) Ileocaecal valve
(c) Pyloric sphincter
(d) Sphincter of Oddi

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The sphincter of Oddi (also hepatopancreatic sphincter or Glisson's sphincter), abbreviated as SO, is a muscular valve that in some animals, including humans, controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum.

Q15. Which of the following statements is not correct?        [NEET 2015]

(a) Goblet cells are present in the mucosa of the intestine and secrete mucus.
(b) Oxyntic cells are present in the mucosa of the stomach and secrete HCl.
(c) Acini are present in the pancreas and secrete carboxypeptidase.
(d) Brunner's glands are present in the submucosa of the stomach and secrete pepsinogen.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The Burner's glands are present in the submucosa of the small intestine and secrete an alkaline fluid rich in mucin that protects the duodenal surface of the small intestine from the action of the acidic chyme.

Q16. Gastric juice of infants contains:      [NEET 2015]

(a) Nuclease, pepsinogen, lipase
(b) Pepsinogen, lipase, rennin
(c) Amylase, rennin, pepsinogen
(d) Maltase, pepsinogen, rennin

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Gastric juice of infants contains pepsinogen, lipase, and rennin. Gastric juice does not contain amylase, maltase & nuclease.

Q17. The primary dentition in human differs from permanent dentition in not having one of the following types of teeth:    [NEET 2015] 

(a) Premolars
(b) Molars
(c) Incisors
(d) Canine

Correct Answer is Option (a)
The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. There are two premolars per quadrant in the permanent set of teeth in humans, making eight premolars total in the mouth. The dental formula for milk teeth is 2102/2102 so premolars are absent in the primary dentition.

Q18. The initial step in the digestion of milk in humans is carried out by    [NEET 2014] 
(a) Lipase
(b) Trypsin
(c) Rennin
(d) Pepsin

Correct Answer is Option (d)
In humans, the milk protein digesting enzyme in stomach is pepsin. In calves it is rennin. It is also present in small amounts in human infants but not adults. Pepsin acts on water soluble 'caseinogen' (milk protein) to form soluble 'casein'  This combines with calcium salts to form insoluble calcium paracaseinate, which gets readily digested  enzymatically.

Q19. Fructose is absorbed into the blood through mucosa cells of the intestine by the process called:    [NEET 2014]
(a) Active transport
(b) Facilitated transport
(c) Simple diffusion
(d) Co-transport mechanism

Correct Answer is Option (b) 
Facilitated transport is a form of passive transport in which materials are moved across the plasma membrane by a transport protein down their concentration gradient. Hence, it does not require energy.

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