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Energy - Notes Notes | Study Geography for UPSC 2023 (Pre & Mains) - UPSC

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 Page 1


 
ENERGY 
INTRODUCTION 
Sources of energy are generally classified as renewable energy sources and 
non-renewable energy sources.  
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The renewable energy or non-
conventional energy source refer to sources which are almost unlimited or 
which can be replenished over a short span of time. Such sources are – sun, 
wind, water, agricultural residue, natural geysers, firewood, animal dung, 
etc.  
 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The non-renewable energy 
sources are the fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas and nuclear 
energy sources like uranium etc. The developed countries have about 20% of 
the world’s population and use about 60% of the world’s non-renewable 
energy resources. 
IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENERGY: 
SOLAR ENERGY : The energy generated from the sun is known as solar 
energy. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWh/year 
which is far more than total energy consumption in the country.  
HYDEL ENERGY : The energy generated from water is known as hydel 
energy.  
BIOMASS ENERGY : The energy available from firewood and agro-
residue is known as biomass energy.  
 BIOGAS ENERGY : The energy available from animal dung and city 
biodegradable waste etc is called biogas energy.  
WIND ENERGY : The energy available from wind is known as wind 
energy.  
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY : The energy available from hot dry rocks, hot 
water springs, natural geysers, etc is known as geothermal energy.  
Page 2


 
ENERGY 
INTRODUCTION 
Sources of energy are generally classified as renewable energy sources and 
non-renewable energy sources.  
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The renewable energy or non-
conventional energy source refer to sources which are almost unlimited or 
which can be replenished over a short span of time. Such sources are – sun, 
wind, water, agricultural residue, natural geysers, firewood, animal dung, 
etc.  
 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The non-renewable energy 
sources are the fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas and nuclear 
energy sources like uranium etc. The developed countries have about 20% of 
the world’s population and use about 60% of the world’s non-renewable 
energy resources. 
IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENERGY: 
SOLAR ENERGY : The energy generated from the sun is known as solar 
energy. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWh/year 
which is far more than total energy consumption in the country.  
HYDEL ENERGY : The energy generated from water is known as hydel 
energy.  
BIOMASS ENERGY : The energy available from firewood and agro-
residue is known as biomass energy.  
 BIOGAS ENERGY : The energy available from animal dung and city 
biodegradable waste etc is called biogas energy.  
WIND ENERGY : The energy available from wind is known as wind 
energy.  
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY : The energy available from hot dry rocks, hot 
water springs, natural geysers, etc is known as geothermal energy.  
 
NUCLEAR ENERGY: The energy released during nuclear fission or 
fusion, especially when used to generate electricity. 
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 
 
REN21’S RENEWABLE 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR)  
Renewables now supply around 26 per cent of global electricity production 
but the transport, cooling and heating sectors lag far behind in renewable 
adoption. 
Underlining the subsidy support being given to fossil fuel, the GSR read 
that lack of political will and fossil fuel subsidies are threatening to derail 
the crucial UN 2030 Climate and Development Goals. 
Renewable energy’s share in power consumption is increasing undoubtedly, 
but people would have consumed more had policy makers prioritized the 
sector. 
Erratic policy decisions kept the world from using the sector to its potential in 
meeting climate change targets, added the report. 
Page 3


 
ENERGY 
INTRODUCTION 
Sources of energy are generally classified as renewable energy sources and 
non-renewable energy sources.  
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The renewable energy or non-
conventional energy source refer to sources which are almost unlimited or 
which can be replenished over a short span of time. Such sources are – sun, 
wind, water, agricultural residue, natural geysers, firewood, animal dung, 
etc.  
 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The non-renewable energy 
sources are the fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas and nuclear 
energy sources like uranium etc. The developed countries have about 20% of 
the world’s population and use about 60% of the world’s non-renewable 
energy resources. 
IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENERGY: 
SOLAR ENERGY : The energy generated from the sun is known as solar 
energy. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWh/year 
which is far more than total energy consumption in the country.  
HYDEL ENERGY : The energy generated from water is known as hydel 
energy.  
BIOMASS ENERGY : The energy available from firewood and agro-
residue is known as biomass energy.  
 BIOGAS ENERGY : The energy available from animal dung and city 
biodegradable waste etc is called biogas energy.  
WIND ENERGY : The energy available from wind is known as wind 
energy.  
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY : The energy available from hot dry rocks, hot 
water springs, natural geysers, etc is known as geothermal energy.  
 
NUCLEAR ENERGY: The energy released during nuclear fission or 
fusion, especially when used to generate electricity. 
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 
 
REN21’S RENEWABLE 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR)  
Renewables now supply around 26 per cent of global electricity production 
but the transport, cooling and heating sectors lag far behind in renewable 
adoption. 
Underlining the subsidy support being given to fossil fuel, the GSR read 
that lack of political will and fossil fuel subsidies are threatening to derail 
the crucial UN 2030 Climate and Development Goals. 
Renewable energy’s share in power consumption is increasing undoubtedly, 
but people would have consumed more had policy makers prioritized the 
sector. 
Erratic policy decisions kept the world from using the sector to its potential in 
meeting climate change targets, added the report. 
 
India ranked fourth globally for new investment in renewable energy in 
2018. 
India’s new power generation capacity from solar photovoltaic panels 
decreased compared to 2017, according to the report. 
The report confirmed that installed renewable power capacity was more 
than that of fossil fuel and nuclear power combined for the fourth 
consecutive year. 
Lack of ambitious and sustained policies to drive decarburizing in 
heating, cooling and transport sectors indicates that countries are not 
trying to maximise the benefit of energy transition. 
The investment has decreased 16 per cent compared to 2017. 
 It attributes this to factors like: 
• Land and transmission constraints, 
• 25 per cent safeguard duty on imports from China and Malaysia 
• Flaws in tender scheme 
• Tax uncertainties 
GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSITION INDEX 
World Economic Forum has released its Global Energy Transition index. 
 The annual list ranks 115 economies on their ability to balance energy 
security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability. 
The index considers both the current state of the countries’ energy system 
and their structural readiness to adapt to future energy needs. 
The ‘transition readiness’ component of the index has taken into account 
six individual indicators: 
1) capital and investment, 
2) regulation and political commitment, 
3) institutions and governance, 
4) institutions and innovative business environment, 
5) human capital and consumer participation, and 
Page 4


 
ENERGY 
INTRODUCTION 
Sources of energy are generally classified as renewable energy sources and 
non-renewable energy sources.  
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The renewable energy or non-
conventional energy source refer to sources which are almost unlimited or 
which can be replenished over a short span of time. Such sources are – sun, 
wind, water, agricultural residue, natural geysers, firewood, animal dung, 
etc.  
 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The non-renewable energy 
sources are the fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas and nuclear 
energy sources like uranium etc. The developed countries have about 20% of 
the world’s population and use about 60% of the world’s non-renewable 
energy resources. 
IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENERGY: 
SOLAR ENERGY : The energy generated from the sun is known as solar 
energy. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWh/year 
which is far more than total energy consumption in the country.  
HYDEL ENERGY : The energy generated from water is known as hydel 
energy.  
BIOMASS ENERGY : The energy available from firewood and agro-
residue is known as biomass energy.  
 BIOGAS ENERGY : The energy available from animal dung and city 
biodegradable waste etc is called biogas energy.  
WIND ENERGY : The energy available from wind is known as wind 
energy.  
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY : The energy available from hot dry rocks, hot 
water springs, natural geysers, etc is known as geothermal energy.  
 
NUCLEAR ENERGY: The energy released during nuclear fission or 
fusion, especially when used to generate electricity. 
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 
 
REN21’S RENEWABLE 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR)  
Renewables now supply around 26 per cent of global electricity production 
but the transport, cooling and heating sectors lag far behind in renewable 
adoption. 
Underlining the subsidy support being given to fossil fuel, the GSR read 
that lack of political will and fossil fuel subsidies are threatening to derail 
the crucial UN 2030 Climate and Development Goals. 
Renewable energy’s share in power consumption is increasing undoubtedly, 
but people would have consumed more had policy makers prioritized the 
sector. 
Erratic policy decisions kept the world from using the sector to its potential in 
meeting climate change targets, added the report. 
 
India ranked fourth globally for new investment in renewable energy in 
2018. 
India’s new power generation capacity from solar photovoltaic panels 
decreased compared to 2017, according to the report. 
The report confirmed that installed renewable power capacity was more 
than that of fossil fuel and nuclear power combined for the fourth 
consecutive year. 
Lack of ambitious and sustained policies to drive decarburizing in 
heating, cooling and transport sectors indicates that countries are not 
trying to maximise the benefit of energy transition. 
The investment has decreased 16 per cent compared to 2017. 
 It attributes this to factors like: 
• Land and transmission constraints, 
• 25 per cent safeguard duty on imports from China and Malaysia 
• Flaws in tender scheme 
• Tax uncertainties 
GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSITION INDEX 
World Economic Forum has released its Global Energy Transition index. 
 The annual list ranks 115 economies on their ability to balance energy 
security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability. 
The index considers both the current state of the countries’ energy system 
and their structural readiness to adapt to future energy needs. 
The ‘transition readiness’ component of the index has taken into account 
six individual indicators: 
1) capital and investment, 
2) regulation and political commitment, 
3) institutions and governance, 
4) institutions and innovative business environment, 
5) human capital and consumer participation, and 
 
6) energy system structure 
Sweden retained its top spot on the list, followed by Switzerland and 
Norway in the second and third positions respectively. 
The developing countries in Asia, on the other hand, showed significant 
improvements towards universal access to electricity led by India (76), 
Indonesia (63) and Bangladesh (90). 
India was found to be amongst the countries with high pollution levels and 
relatively high CO2 intensity in its energy system. Despite this, the report 
found that India has made significant strides to improve energy access in 
recent years and currently scores well in the area of regulation and 
political commitment towards energy transition. 
While India scored low in terms of system performance, it ranks 
considerably higher when it comes to readiness to adapt to future energy 
needs. Overall, India has moved up two places from its 78th position in 2018. 
UNNATEE 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has developed a national strategy 
document titled UNNATEE for accelerating energy efficiency in India. 
Full name: National Energy Efficiency Strategy Plan 2031 – UNNATEE 
(Unlocking NATional Energy Efficiency potential).  
It describes the implementation strategy to establish a clear linkage 
between energy supply-demand scenarios and energy efficiency 
opportunities. .  
It clearly delineates the energy efficiency targets for the respective demand 
sectors upto the state levels.  
Bodies involved:  
About BEE 
The BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of 
India. 
Page 5


 
ENERGY 
INTRODUCTION 
Sources of energy are generally classified as renewable energy sources and 
non-renewable energy sources.  
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The renewable energy or non-
conventional energy source refer to sources which are almost unlimited or 
which can be replenished over a short span of time. Such sources are – sun, 
wind, water, agricultural residue, natural geysers, firewood, animal dung, 
etc.  
 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES : The non-renewable energy 
sources are the fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas and nuclear 
energy sources like uranium etc. The developed countries have about 20% of 
the world’s population and use about 60% of the world’s non-renewable 
energy resources. 
IMPORTANT TYPES OF ENERGY: 
SOLAR ENERGY : The energy generated from the sun is known as solar 
energy. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWh/year 
which is far more than total energy consumption in the country.  
HYDEL ENERGY : The energy generated from water is known as hydel 
energy.  
BIOMASS ENERGY : The energy available from firewood and agro-
residue is known as biomass energy.  
 BIOGAS ENERGY : The energy available from animal dung and city 
biodegradable waste etc is called biogas energy.  
WIND ENERGY : The energy available from wind is known as wind 
energy.  
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY : The energy available from hot dry rocks, hot 
water springs, natural geysers, etc is known as geothermal energy.  
 
NUCLEAR ENERGY: The energy released during nuclear fission or 
fusion, especially when used to generate electricity. 
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 
 
REN21’S RENEWABLE 2019 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR)  
Renewables now supply around 26 per cent of global electricity production 
but the transport, cooling and heating sectors lag far behind in renewable 
adoption. 
Underlining the subsidy support being given to fossil fuel, the GSR read 
that lack of political will and fossil fuel subsidies are threatening to derail 
the crucial UN 2030 Climate and Development Goals. 
Renewable energy’s share in power consumption is increasing undoubtedly, 
but people would have consumed more had policy makers prioritized the 
sector. 
Erratic policy decisions kept the world from using the sector to its potential in 
meeting climate change targets, added the report. 
 
India ranked fourth globally for new investment in renewable energy in 
2018. 
India’s new power generation capacity from solar photovoltaic panels 
decreased compared to 2017, according to the report. 
The report confirmed that installed renewable power capacity was more 
than that of fossil fuel and nuclear power combined for the fourth 
consecutive year. 
Lack of ambitious and sustained policies to drive decarburizing in 
heating, cooling and transport sectors indicates that countries are not 
trying to maximise the benefit of energy transition. 
The investment has decreased 16 per cent compared to 2017. 
 It attributes this to factors like: 
• Land and transmission constraints, 
• 25 per cent safeguard duty on imports from China and Malaysia 
• Flaws in tender scheme 
• Tax uncertainties 
GLOBAL ENERGY TRANSITION INDEX 
World Economic Forum has released its Global Energy Transition index. 
 The annual list ranks 115 economies on their ability to balance energy 
security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability. 
The index considers both the current state of the countries’ energy system 
and their structural readiness to adapt to future energy needs. 
The ‘transition readiness’ component of the index has taken into account 
six individual indicators: 
1) capital and investment, 
2) regulation and political commitment, 
3) institutions and governance, 
4) institutions and innovative business environment, 
5) human capital and consumer participation, and 
 
6) energy system structure 
Sweden retained its top spot on the list, followed by Switzerland and 
Norway in the second and third positions respectively. 
The developing countries in Asia, on the other hand, showed significant 
improvements towards universal access to electricity led by India (76), 
Indonesia (63) and Bangladesh (90). 
India was found to be amongst the countries with high pollution levels and 
relatively high CO2 intensity in its energy system. Despite this, the report 
found that India has made significant strides to improve energy access in 
recent years and currently scores well in the area of regulation and 
political commitment towards energy transition. 
While India scored low in terms of system performance, it ranks 
considerably higher when it comes to readiness to adapt to future energy 
needs. Overall, India has moved up two places from its 78th position in 2018. 
UNNATEE 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has developed a national strategy 
document titled UNNATEE for accelerating energy efficiency in India. 
Full name: National Energy Efficiency Strategy Plan 2031 – UNNATEE 
(Unlocking NATional Energy Efficiency potential).  
It describes the implementation strategy to establish a clear linkage 
between energy supply-demand scenarios and energy efficiency 
opportunities. .  
It clearly delineates the energy efficiency targets for the respective demand 
sectors upto the state levels.  
Bodies involved:  
About BEE 
The BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of 
India. 
 
It assists in developing policies and strategies with the primary objective of 
reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy. 
BEE coordinates with designated consumers, designated agencies, and 
other organizations to identify and utilize the existing resources and 
infrastructure, in performing the functions assigned to it under the 
Energy Conservation Act. 
DELHI DECLARATION ON RENEWABLE ENERGY 
The Delhi Declaration calls for collaboration among IORA member states 
in meeting the growing demand for renewable energy in the Indian Ocean 
littorals, development of a common renewable energy agenda for the 
Indian ocean region and promote regional capacity building. 
The declaration also calls for promotion of technology development and 
transfer, strengthening of public private partnerships in renewable energy and 
collaboration among IORA member states and the member nations of the 
International Solar Alliance (ISA). 
GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY ATLAS 
IORA member nations and International Renewable Energy Agency 
(IRENA) will undertake the expansion of the Global Renewable Energy 
Atlas. 
It will be the world’s largest-ever joint renewable resource data project, 
coordinated by IRENA, thereby creating the IOR’s first and most 
comprehensive map and database which will be used to tap RE potential 
of the region. 
NATIONAL ENERGY STORAGE MISSION (NESM) 
NITI Aayog and Rocky Mountain Institute’s joint report on India’s 
Energy Storage Mission has proposed three stage solution approach i.e. 
creating an environment for battery manufacturing growth; scaling 
supply chain strategies; and scaling of battery cell manufacturing. 
 
 
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