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Flashcards for JEE Chemistry - p-Block Elements Class 12

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p-Block Elements
Flash cards
Page 2


p-Block Elements
Flash cards
BORON FAMILY
Introduction
(a) The boron family consists of five elements :- Boron, aluminium, gallium, indium 
and thallium.
(b) Aluminum is third most abundant element found in earth crust (7.4%).
(c) All these elements have three electrons in the outermost orbit (ns
2
.np
1
)
Page 3


p-Block Elements
Flash cards
BORON FAMILY
Introduction
(a) The boron family consists of five elements :- Boron, aluminium, gallium, indium 
and thallium.
(b) Aluminum is third most abundant element found in earth crust (7.4%).
(c) All these elements have three electrons in the outermost orbit (ns
2
.np
1
)
Group properties (Continued)
All the group elements have similar physical and chemical properties due to same 
electronic configuration. Some of the properties of boron differ from other group 
element due to difference in its penultimate electronic configuration.
(s
2
, for boron, s
2
p
6
for Al) (s
2
p
6
d
10
for other three)
Page 4


p-Block Elements
Flash cards
BORON FAMILY
Introduction
(a) The boron family consists of five elements :- Boron, aluminium, gallium, indium 
and thallium.
(b) Aluminum is third most abundant element found in earth crust (7.4%).
(c) All these elements have three electrons in the outermost orbit (ns
2
.np
1
)
Group properties (Continued)
All the group elements have similar physical and chemical properties due to same 
electronic configuration. Some of the properties of boron differ from other group 
element due to difference in its penultimate electronic configuration.
(s
2
, for boron, s
2
p
6
for Al) (s
2
p
6
d
10
for other three)
Group properties (Continued)
(1) Physical properties
Note: – Boron is a semimetal, its crystalline form is hard, inert and poor 
conductor of electricity
(1.1) Oxidation state:
(a) These elements show +1 and +3 oxidation states ns
2
, np
1
.
(b) Boron shows only + 3 oxidation state. While other elements show + 1 and + 3 
oxidation state.
(c) + 1 oxidation state is more stable on moving down the group ( ?) due to inert 
pair effect.
(d) Ga shows +2 oxidation state in some compounds like GaCl
2
but actually this is 
a combination of Ga
1+
and Ga
3+
,
Ga
+
(GaCl
4
)
¯
? GaCl
2
.
Page 5


p-Block Elements
Flash cards
BORON FAMILY
Introduction
(a) The boron family consists of five elements :- Boron, aluminium, gallium, indium 
and thallium.
(b) Aluminum is third most abundant element found in earth crust (7.4%).
(c) All these elements have three electrons in the outermost orbit (ns
2
.np
1
)
Group properties (Continued)
All the group elements have similar physical and chemical properties due to same 
electronic configuration. Some of the properties of boron differ from other group 
element due to difference in its penultimate electronic configuration.
(s
2
, for boron, s
2
p
6
for Al) (s
2
p
6
d
10
for other three)
Group properties (Continued)
(1) Physical properties
Note: – Boron is a semimetal, its crystalline form is hard, inert and poor 
conductor of electricity
(1.1) Oxidation state:
(a) These elements show +1 and +3 oxidation states ns
2
, np
1
.
(b) Boron shows only + 3 oxidation state. While other elements show + 1 and + 3 
oxidation state.
(c) + 1 oxidation state is more stable on moving down the group ( ?) due to inert 
pair effect.
(d) Ga shows +2 oxidation state in some compounds like GaCl
2
but actually this is 
a combination of Ga
1+
and Ga
3+
,
Ga
+
(GaCl
4
)
¯
? GaCl
2
.
Group properties (Continued)
(1.2) Tendency to form ionic compounds :
(a) It increases from B to Tl.
(b) Ionization energy of boron is very high and it is not compensated by lattice as 
well as hydration energy in solution. So it forms only covalent compound.
(c) The high charge density (small size & high charge) of Al
3+
allows it to form both 
covalent and ionic compounds.
(d) Gallium forms ionic compounds except GaCl
2
.
(e) Thallium forms only ionic compounds.
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FAQs on Flashcards for JEE Chemistry - p-Block Elements Class 12

1. What are p-block elements?
Ans. p-block elements are the elements that belong to groups 13 to 18 in the periodic table. They include elements from the boron (B) group to the noble gases. These elements have their valence electrons in the p orbital of their outermost energy level.
2. What are the properties of p-block elements?
Ans. P-block elements exhibit a wide range of properties. Some common properties include varying metallic and non-metallic behavior, diverse oxidation states, ability to form covalent bonds, and the presence of multiple allotropes. They also show differences in electronegativity, atomic and ionic radii, and ionization energies.
3. Why are p-block elements important?
Ans. P-block elements are important in various aspects. They play crucial roles in biological systems, such as being essential elements in the human body, and are also used in industrial applications. Many p-block elements are important for the environment, agriculture, and energy storage. Their unique properties make them valuable in fields like electronics, medicine, and materials science.
4. How do p-block elements form compounds?
Ans. P-block elements form compounds through various bonding mechanisms. They can form ionic bonds by gaining or losing electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. They can also form covalent bonds by sharing electrons with other elements. Additionally, p-block elements can participate in coordinate covalent bonding, where they donate a lone pair of electrons to form a bond.
5. What are some examples of p-block elements?
Ans. Examples of p-block elements include carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), and noble gases like helium (He) and neon (Ne). These elements exhibit a wide range of properties and have diverse applications in various fields.
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