Size and Location.
Mineral Resources in India
1. Iron ore
Orissa, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Karnataka-Chikmangalur, Bellary, Kudremukh, Madhya Pradesh Dalli-Rajhara, Bailadila
2. Manganese ore
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa
3. Chromite ore
Orissa, Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka
Karnataka-Kolar, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar
Karnataka-Kolar, Rajasthan-Zawar Mines
6. Copper ore
7. Lead and Zinc
Plateau Region of Bihar, M.P. Coastal tracts of Gujarat, Kerala
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu, Salem district, U.P., Almora district
Andhra Pradesh-Peddanakonda, Orissa-Babupali
19. Salt (Common salt)
Coastal areas of Gujarat, Maharashtra
W.B.-Bakura, Purulia, Burdwan Bihar-Dhanbad, Ramgarh, Bokaro, Orissa-Sambalpur, Talcher
21. Assam Oil
Assam-Digboi, Gujarat-Ankleshwar, Arabian Sea-Bombay High
Significance of Location.
AGENTS OF EROSION AND ASSOCIATED LANDFORMS
1. Water (Fluvial action)
: Rapids, Waterfalls, P&T
holes, Plunge pools,
Cataracts, River Capture.
: Meanders, River Cliffs and Slip off Slopes, Interlocking spurs
: Braided stream, Levees, ox-bow lakes, Delta, Flood Plain
2. Ice (Glacial action)
: Corrie, Aretes, Pyramidal
Peaks, Bergs chrund
Crevasses, U-Shaped Valleys, Hanging Valleys, Rock Basins, Rock step, Moraines (Lateral,
: Roche Mounteonnee,
Crag and Tail, Boulder clay or Glacial till,
Erratics, Drumlins, Eskers, Outwash Plains, Terminal Moraincs, Kames, Kettle Lakes
3. Wind (Aeolian action)
: Rock pedestals or
Zeugen, Yardangs, Mesas, Buttes, Inselberg, Ventifacts or Drickanter,
Deflation Hollows, Pediment.
4. Waves (Marine action)
HYDRAULIC, ACTION, SOLUTION
: Dunes (Barchans, Seifs), Loess, Bajada.
: Capes, Bays, Cliffs, Wave Cut platforms, cave Arch and stump, Geos and Groups, Blow Hole
5. Underground water (Karst action)
: Beaches, spits and Bars, Marine dunes and Dune Belts.
: Limestone pavements
Grikes, Clints, Swallow
Holes, Doline, Uvala,
Stalagmites, Pillar, Coombes.
Some Famous Lines
1. DURAND LINE
: The line of demarcation drawn in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand defining the boundary between India (now Pakistan) and Afghanistan. Afghanistan has refused to recognize the line.
2. HINDENBURG LINE
: It was the dividing line between Germany and Poland. Scene of jubilation in Dec 1989 when the Berlin Wall was demolished.
: A telecommunication line established in 1963 between Kremlin (Moscow) and White House (Washington D.C. USA) to avoid misunderstanding. Rawalpindi and New Delhi have been linked up by Hotline.
4. MANNERHEIM LINE
: Line of fortification on Russo-Finnish border drawn up by Gen. Mannerheim.
5. McMOHAN LINE
: The line demarcating the boundary between India and Tibet (now China) on the North-Eastern border. China does not recognise the boundary line and demands certain areas on the Indian side of the McMohan line.
6. MAGINOT LINE
: A line of fortification constructed by France to protect her border from German attack.
7. ODER NEISSE LINE
: The line defining the boundary between East Germany and Poland drawn up after World War II. Germany has now accepted the inviolability of this line.
8. PLIMSOLL LINE
: Line marked on the hull of the ship to avoid overcrowding.
9. RADCLIFFE LINE
Named after Sir Cyril Radcliffe, chairman of the Boundary Commission for India and Pakistan, demarcated India and Pakistan's boundary on 15th August 1947.
10. SIEGFRIED LINE
: Line of fortification in France. Pre-World War II, Germany drew up the German border.
11. 38th PARALLEL
: Line dividing North Korea and South Korea.
12. 17th PARALLEL
: Line demarcating the boundary between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. These two countries have now united.
13. 24th PARALLEL
: Pakistan claims that the 24th Parallel should be a boundary between India and Pakistan. India rejected the claim. The Kutch Tribunal awarded about 300 sq. miles to Pakistan, including Chhad Bet.
14. PALK STRAIT
: Boundary line between India and Sri Lanka.
15. 29th PARALLEL
: Boundary line between USA and Canada.
Faulting: Faulting owes its origin to tension, i.e. when forces act horizontally in opposite directions away from a given plane or a point.
Karnataka, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu
Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa
Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Jammu & Kashmir
Jammu & Kashmir,
K-2 (Godwin Austin)
Igneous Rock Bodies
Name of disease
Brown leaf spot
Mechanically formed sedimentary rocks:
Organically formed sedimentary rocks:
Chemically formed sedimentary rocks: