Gist of One Nation, One Gas Grid Notes | Study Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV) - UPSC

UPSC: Gist of One Nation, One Gas Grid Notes | Study Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV) - UPSC

The document Gist of One Nation, One Gas Grid Notes | Study Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV) - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV).
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The Big Picture: One Nation, One Gas Grid
Context

Recently, Prime Minister stressed that a gas-based economy is crucial for Atmanirbhar Bharat and work is being done in the direction of 'One Nation, One Gas Grid'.

Background
  • Prime Minister inaugurated the 450-km natural gas pipeline between Kochi in Kerala to Mangaluru in Karnataka
  • Speaking at the event, he set out his government's energy roadmap, envisaging more than double the share of cleaner natural gas in the consumption basket, diversifying sources of energy, connecting the nation with one gas pipeline grid and bringing affordable fuel to people and industry. 
  • The pipeline grid will not only help improve clean energy access, but also aid in the development of city gas projects. 
Summary of The Debate
One Nation, One Grid
  • It is a concept to improve India’s connectivity infrastructure and to ensure availability of power to states at ‘affordable’ rates.
  • Finance Minister in her maiden Union Budget 2019 speech proposed the concept of a one nation one grid.

Power grids in India: The Indian power system is currently divided into five regional grids.

  • The integration of the regional grids and thereby the establishment of a national grid was conceptualised in the early 1990s
  • The integration of regional grids which began with asynchronous HVDC back-to-back inter-regional links facilitating limited exchange of regulated power was subsequently graduated to high capacity synchronous links between the regions.

The evolution of the National Grid: Grid management on regional basis started in sixties.

  • Initially, State grids were inter-connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern region.
  • In October 1991 North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected.
  • In March 2003 WR and ER-NER were interconnected.
  • August 2006 North and East grids were interconnected thereby 4 regional grids Northern, Eastern, Western and North Eastern grids are synchronously connected forming central grid operating at one frequency.
  • On 31st December 2013, Southern Region was connected to Central Grid in Synchronous mode with the commissioning of 765kV Raichur- Solapur Transmission line thereby achieving 'ONE NATION'-'ONE GRID'-'ONE FREQUENCY'.
Natural Gas Scenario in India
  • Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuels among the available fossil fuels. 
  • It is used as a feedstock in the manufacture of fertilizers, plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals as well as used as a fuel for electricity generation, heating purpose in industrial and commercial units. 
  • Natural gas is also used for cooking in domestic households and a transportation fuel for vehicles.

Gas supply sources in India:

  • Domestic Gas Sources: The domestic gas in the country is being supplied from the oil & gas fields located at western and southeastern areas viz. Hazira basin, Mumbai offshore & KG basin as well as North East Region (Assam & Tripura). 
  • Import of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): In order to meet the gas demand, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is imported through Open General License (OGL) in the country and it is imported by the gas marketer under various Long Term, Medium Term and Spot contracts. 
Challenges
  • Infrastructural challenges: Most of the projects are running late and the problem lies in the implementation part. 
  • Natural gas illiteracy is there, people are not aware of this and more than 80 percent do not have access to natural gas. 
  • Land Issues: There are land issue challenges with many states and local authority. 
  • Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) is also a challenge as far as natural gas is concerned. 
Benefits of Centralized Power Grid
  • Synchronization of all regional grids will help in optimal utilization of scarce natural resources by transfer of Power from Resource centric regions to Load centric regions.
  • This will pave way for establishment of vibrant Electricity market facilitating trading of power across regions.
  • One Nation One Grid shall synchronously connect all the regional grids and there will be one national frequency.
  • It will reduce regional imbalances and India will achieve its target of increasing the share of natural gas in its overall energy basket to 15 per cent by 2030.
Conclusion

We need to move in a more planned manner to achieve gas based economy and bring natural gas in every household. Tremendous efforts are underway to provide clean affordable and sustainable energy but going forward there will be several challenges that we must tackle if we have to end energy poverty and in the times to come ensure energy security for the citizen as well.

The document Gist of One Nation, One Gas Grid Notes | Study Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV) - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Gist of Rajya Sabha TV / RSTV (now Sansad TV).
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