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**Wave Optics**

Wave optics describes the connection between waves and rays of light. According to the wave theory of light, the light is a form of energy which travels through a medium in the form of transverse wave motion. The speed of light in a medium depends upon the nature of the medium.

**Newton’s Corpuscular Theory**

- Light consists of very small invisible elastic particles which travel in vacuum with a speed of 3 x 10
^{8}m/s. - The theory could explain reflection and refraction.

Newton's Corpuscular Theory

- The size of corpuscular of different colours of light are different.
- It could not explain interference, diffraction, polarization. photoelectric effect and Compton effect. The theory failed as it could not explain why light travels faster in a rarer medium than in a denser medium.

**Wavefront**

A wavefront is defined as the continuous locus of all the particles of a medium, which are vibrating in the same phase.

__These are three types:__

- Spherical wavefront
- Cylindrical wavefront
- Plane wavefront

S = source of light.

AB = wavefront and SP SQ and SR are rays cf light

**Huygen’s Wave Theory**

- Light travel in a medium in the form of wavefront.
- A wavefront is the locus of all the particles vibrating in same phase.
- All particles on a wavefront behaves as a secondary source of light, which emits secondary wavelets.

Huygen's Principle

- The envelope of secondary wavelets represents the new position of a wavefront.
- When source of light is a point source,the wavefront is spherical.
- Amplitude (A) is inversely proportional to distance (x) i.g., A ∝ 1 / x .

∴ Intensity (I) ∝ (Amplitude)^{2} - When Source of light is linear, the wavefront is cylindrical.
- Amplitude (A) ∝ 1 / √x

∴ Intensity ∝ (Amplitude)^{2}∝ 1 / x

**Huygen’s Principle**

- Every point on given wavefront (called primary wavefront) acts as a fresh source of new disturbance called secondary wavelets.
- The secondary wavelets travels in all the directions with the speed of light in the medium.
- A surface touching these secondary wavelets tangentially in the forward direction at any instant gives the new (secondary) wave front of that instant.

**Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Wave Theory**

- Light waves are electromagnetic waves which do not require a material medium for their propagation.
- Due to transverse nature, light wave undergo polarisation.
- The velocity of electromagnetic wave in vacuum is c = 1 / √μ
_{o}ε_{o}. - The velocity of electromagnetic waves in medium is less than that of light, v < c

v = 1 / √μ_{o}ε_{o}ε_{r}μ_{r}= c / √μ_{o}ε_{r} - The velocity of electromagnetic waves in a medium depend upon the electric and magnetic properties of the medium.

where, μ_{o}= absolute magnetic permeability and

ε_{o}= absolute electrical permittivity of free space.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

- It failed to explain the phenomenon of photoelectric effect, Compton effect and Raman effect.

**Max Planck’s Quantum Theory**

- Light emits from a source in the form of packets of energy called quanta or photon.
- The energy of a photon is E == hv, where h is Planck’s constant and v is the frequency of light.
- Quantum theory could explain photoelectric effect, Compton effect and Raman effect.
- Quantum theory failed to explain interference, diffraction and polarization of light.

**De – Broglie’s Dual Theory**

- Light waves have dual nature, wave nature according to Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory and particle nature according to Max-Planck’s quantum theory.
- Two natures of light are like the two faces of a coin. In anyone phenomena only its one nature appears.
- Energy of photon = hv = hc / λ

where, h = Planck’s constant 6.6 * 10<sup-34 J / s

de-Broglie wave equation is λ = h / p = h / mv

where h denotes Planck’s constant.

**Superposition of Waves**

When two similar waves propagate in a medium simultaneously, then at any point the resultant displacement is equal to the vector sum of displacement produced by individual waves.

y = y_{1} + y_{2}

**Interference of Light**

- When two light waves of similar frequency having a zero or constant phase difference propagate in a medium simultaneously in the same direction, then due to their superposition maximum intensity is obtained at few points and minimum intensity at other few points.
- This phenomena of redistribution of energy due to superposition of waves is called interference of light waves.
- The interference taking place at points of maximum intensity is called
**constructive interference**. - The interference taking place at points of minimum intensity is
**destructive interference**.

**Fringe Width**

- The distance between the centers of two consecutive bright or dark fringes is called the fringe width.
- The angular fringe width is given by θ = λ / d.

where λ is the wavelength of light d is the distance between two coherent sources.

**Conditions for Constructive and Destructive Interference**

**➢ For Constructive Interference**

- Phase difference, φ = 2nπ
- Path difference, Δx = nλ

where, n = 0, 1, 2, 3,…

**➢ For Destructive Interference**

- Phase difference, φ = (2n – 1)π
- Path difference, Δx = (2n – 1)π / 2

where, n = 1, 2, 3, …

If two waves of exactly same frequency and of amplitude a and b interfere, then amplitude of resultant wave is given by

R = √a^{2} + b^{2} + 2ab cos φ

where φ is the phase difference between two waves.

R_{max} = (a + b)

R_{min} = (a – b)

Intensity of wave

∴ I = a^{2} + b^{2} + 2ab cos φ

= I_{1} + I_{2} + 2 √I_{1} I_{2} cos φ

where I_{1} and I_{2} are intensities of two waves.

∴ I_{1} / I_{2} = a^{2} / b^{2} = ω_{1} / ω_{2}

Where ω_{1} and ω_{2} are width of slits.

Energy remains conserved during interference.

Interference fringe width

β = Dλ / d

where, D = distance of screen from slits, λ = wavelength of light and d = distance between two slits.

Distance of nth bright fringe from central fringe x_{n} = nDλ / d

Distance of nth dark fringe from central fringe x’_{n} = (2n – 1) Dλ / 2d

**Coherent Sources of Light**

The sources of light emitting light of the same wavelength, the same frequency having a zero or constant phase difference are called coherent sources of light.

Coherent sources of Light

When a transparent sheet of refractive index μ and of thickness t is introduced in one of the path of interfering waves, then fringe pattern shifts in that direction by a distance Y

Y = D / d (μ – 1) t = β / λ (μ – 1) t

where, β = fringe width.

**➢ Fresnel’s Biprism**

- It is a combination of two prisms of very small refracting angles placed base to base. It is used to obtain two coherent sources from a single light source.

**➢ Llyod’s Mirror**

- The shape of interference fringes are usually hyperbolic.
- When screen is held at 900 to the line joining focii of the hyperbola, the fringes are circular.

Llyod's Mirror

- When distance of screen (D) is very large compare to the distance between the slits (d), the Cringes are straight.

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