What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is that branch of science dealing with the study of composition, structure and properties of matter. It deals with the study of the changes which different forms of matter undergo under different conditions. Chemistry also had branches that look at the laws governing these changes. Now that we know what chemistry is let us move on and read about the importance of the same.
Branches of Chemistry
Branches of Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry: This branch deals with the study of carbon compounds, especially hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
- Inorganic Chemistry: This branch deals with the study of compounds of all other elements except carbon. It largely concerns itself with the study of minerals found in the Earth's crust.
- Physical Chemistry: The explanation of fundamental principles governing various chemical phenomena is the main concern of this branch. It is basically concerned with laws and theories of the different branches of chemistry.
- Industrial Chemistry: The chemistry involved in industrial processes is studied under this branch.
- Analytical Chemistry: This branch deals with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of various substances.
- Biochemistry: This branch deals with the chemical changes going on in the bodies of living organisms; plants and animals.
- Nuclear Chemistry: Nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, transmutation processes etc., are studied under this branch.
Question 1:Hair contains keratin proteins which are also present in nails and wool is an example of
Importance and Scope of Chemistry
There are many instances in your day-to-day life that involve chemistry, its applications and its rules. Let us look at them one by one.
➢ Supply of Food
- The study of chemistry provided the world with chemical fertilizers such as urea, calcium super-phosphate, sodium nitrate, and Ammonium Sulphate. These chemicals have helped greatly in increasing the yield of fruits, vegetables and other crops.
- Thus, we can cater to the ever-growing demand for food. It has helped protect the crops from insects and harmful bacteria by using certain effective insecticides, fungicides, and pesticides.
- Chemistry also led to the discovery of preservatives. These chemicals have greatly helped to preserve food products for a longer period. It has given methods to test the presence of adulterants. This ensures the supply of pure foodstuff.
➢ Contribution to Improved Health and Sanitation Facilities
- Chemistry provided mankind with a large number of life-saving drugs. We could find a cure for dysentery and pneumonia due to the discovery of sulphur drugs and penicillin.
- Besides this, life-saving drugs like cisplatin and taxol are effective for cancer therapy, and AZT (Azidothymidine) is used for AIDS victims.
- Some of the common drugs that chemistry has blessed us with, include:
(i) Analgesics: To reduce the pain of different types.
(ii) Antibiotics: To curb infection and cure diseases.
(iii) Tranquillizers: To reduce tension and bring about calm and peace to patients suffering from mental diseases.
(iv) Antiseptics: To stop infection of the wounds.
(v) Disinfectants: To kill the microorganism present in toilets, floor and drains.
(vi) Discovery of anaesthetics has made surgical operations more and more successful.
(vii) The use of insecticides such as DDT and Gammexane has greatly reduced the dangers of diseases caused by the rats, mosquitoes and flies.
➢ The Scope of Chemistry in Saving the Environment
Question 2:The class of medicinal products used to treat stress is:
➢ Increase in Comfort, Pleasure and Luxuries
- Because of the advancements in science and chemistry discoveries, we lead a more comfortable life today. You may ask how? Let us see below.
- Synthetic Fibres: These are more attractive, comfortable and durable. They include terylene, nylon and rayon. They are easy to wash, dry quickly and do not need ironing. Chemistry provides a large number of synthetic dyes which imparts bright and fast colour to the clothes.
- Building Materials: By supplying steel and cement, chemistry helps in the construction of safer homes and multi-storage buildings. It also helps in the construction of long-lasting and durable dams and bridges.
- Supply of Metals: Metals like gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminium, zinc and a large number of the alloys are used for making various objects. These include ornaments, utensils, coins and many industrial and agricultural implements.
- Articles of domestic use: Chemistry has made our homes more comfortable by supplying a large number of articles on domestic uses.
Example: It includes detergents, oils and fats, sugar, paper, glass, plastic, paints, cosmetics, perfumes, cooking gas etc. We are able to beat the heat in summers by using refrigerants like ammonia, liquid sulphur dioxide and freon.
- Entertainment: Cinema, video cameras, simple cameras make use of films which are made of Celluloid and coated with suitable chemicals. Fireworks which amuse us at festival and marriages are chemical products. Can you imagine how boring life would have been if you wouldn’t have been able to take all those cute selfies?
➢ Transport and Communication
- All means of transport use either petrol or diesel or coal which are all chemical products.
➢ Nuclear Atomic Energy
- Chemistry has come to the rescue by providing an alternative source of energy which is nuclear energy.
➢ The Scope of Chemistry in Industry
- Chemistry plays an important and useful role in the development and growth of several industries. This includes industries like glass, cement, paper, textile, leather, dye etc.
- We also see huge applications of chemistry in industries like paints, pigments, petroleum, sugar, plastics, Pharmaceuticals. It has also helped in the greater production of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and Ammonia, hydrogenated oils by providing suitable catalysts.
➢ The Scope of Chemistry in War
- Chemistry plays an important role in the discovery of highly explosive substances such as TNT, nitroglycerine and dynamite. It also plays a role in finding poisonous gases like mustard gas, Phosgene etc.
Chemistry in war