Indian Geography I CLAT Notes | EduRev

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LOCATION
• Lying between latitude 8° 4´ N to 37°6´ N and from longitude 68°7´E to 97° 25´ E, the Country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passing from Jabalpur in MP).
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6°45´), while Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian Mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
• The 82°30´ E longitude is taken as the standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (from Naini, near Allahabad).

AREA  AND  BOUNDARIES
• India stretches 3,214 km from N to S & 2,933 km from E to W.
• Area: 32, 87, 263 sq. km Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 16% of the population.
• Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar, the coastline measures about 7516.6 km.
• In India, of the total land mass:

Plains: 43.3 %, Plateaus: 27.7%, Hills:18.6%,  Mountains: 10.7%.

• In the South, on the eastern side, The Gulf 0f Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
• Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar).
• India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive Islands in the Arabian Sea.
Indian Geography I CLAT Notes | EduRev

FACTS  ABOUT  POSITION  OF  STATES  OF  INDIA
• Uttar Pradesh borders maximum number of States- 8 (Eight): Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.
• Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 (Eight) States: Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
• Indian Standard Meridian (82°30´ E meridian) passes through UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

INDIA  IN  TABLES
INDIAN  STATES  ON  INTERNATIONAL  BOUNDARIES

Sr. No.



1

Bordering Pakistan

Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat. 

2

Bordering China

Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttararakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh. 

3

Bordering Nepal

Bihar, Uttarakhand, UP, Sikkim, West Bengal.

4

Bordering Bangladesh

West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Asom. 

5

Bordering Bhutan

West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Asom. 

6

Bordering Myanmar

Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram.

7

Bordering Afghanistan

Jammu & Kashmir (Pakistan-occupied area).


IMPORTANT  RIVERS  OF  INDIA 

Sr. No.





1

Name

Origin from

Falls into

Length (km.)

2

Ganges

Combined sources

Bay of Bengal

2525

3

Satluj

Mansarovar Rakas Lakes 

Chenab

1050

4

Indus

Near Mansarovar lake

Arabian Sea

2880

5

Ravi

Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass

Chenab

720

6

Beas

Near Rohtang pass

Satluj

470

7

Jhelum

Verinag in Kashmir

Chenab

725

8

Yamuna

Yamunotri

Ganga

1375

9

Chambal

M.P.

Yamuna

1050

10

Ghagra

Matsatung Glaciers

Ganga

1080

11

Kosi

Near Gosain Dham Peak

Ganga

730

12

Betwa

Vindhyanchal

Yamuna

480

13

Son

Amarkantak

Ganga

780

14

Brahmaputra

Near Mansarovar Lake

Bay of Bengal

2900

15

Narmada

Amarkantak

Gulf of Khambat

1057

16

Tapti

Betul Distt. in M.P.

Gulf of Khambat

724

17

Mahanadi

Raipur Distt. in Chhattisgarh

Bay of Bengal

858

18

Luni

Aravallis

Rann of Kutch 

450

19

Ghaggar

Himalayas 

Near Fatehabad

494

20

Sabarmati

Aravallis 

Gulf of Khambat

416

21

Krishna

Western Ghats

Bay of Bengal

1327

22

Godavari

Nasik Distt. in Maharashtra

Bay of Bengal

1465

23

Cauvery

Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats 

Bay of Bengal

805

24

Tungabhadra

Western Ghats

Krishna River

640


MAJOR  PORTS  IN  INDIA (TOTAL 13)

Sr. No.



1

Western Coast

Eastern Coast

2

Kandla (child of partition)

Kolkata-Haldia (riverine port)

3

Mumbai (busiest and biggest)

Paradip (exports raw iron to Japan)

4

Jawahar Lal Nehru (fastest growing)

Vishakhapatnam (deepest port)

5

Marmugao (naval base also)

Chennai (oldest and artificial)

6

Mangalore (exports Kudremukh iron-ore)

Ennore (most modern-in private hands)

7

Cochin (natural harbour)

Tuticorin (southernmost)



Port Blair (strategically important)


NATIONAL  PARKS  AND  WILD  LIFE  SANCTUARIES

Sr. No.



1

Gir Forests

Home of Asiatic lion. In Gujarat

2

Kaziranga Sanctuary

One horned Rhino. In Asom

3

Manas Sanctuary

One horned Rhino. In Asom

4

Chandraprabha Sanctuary

II home of Asiatic lion. In UP

5

Ghana or Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary

In Bharatpur, Rajasthan

6

Dachigam Sanctuary

For Hangul, in Kashmir

7

Corbett National Park

In Uttarakhand. Home of Tiger

8

Kanha National Park

In MP

9

Shiv Puri National Park

In MP

10

Hazaribagh National Park

In Jharkhand

11

Periyar Game Sanctuary

In Kerala

12

Dudhwa National Park

In UP

13

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

In Tamil Nadu

14

Nokrek National Park

In Meghalaya

15

Sariska Sanctuary

In Rajasthan

16

Ranthambhor National Park

In Rajasthan

17

Namdapha National Park

In Arunachal Pradesh

18

Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park

In Manipur

19

Palamau Tiger Project

In Bihar

20

Similipal National Park

In Odisha

21

Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary

In Mysore, Karnataka

22

Nagarhole National Park

In Karnataka

23

Mudumalai Sanctuary

In Tamil Nadu

24

Balpakram Sanctuary

In Meghalaya

25

Bandipur Sanctuary

Along the Karnataka- Tamil Nadu border

26

Jaldapara Sanctuary

In West Bengal. For Rhinos

27

Wild Ass Sanctuary

In Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. For wild Ass


IMPORTANT  CROPS  OF   INDIA

. No.



1

Rice

West Bengal, Punjab, UP

2

wheat

Up, Punjab, Haryana

3

Maize

Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

4

Bajra

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra

5

Jowar

Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP,AP

6

TOTAL PULSES

UP, MP, Punjab

7

TOTAL FOODGRAINS

UP, Punjab, West Bengal

8

Groundnut

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

9

Rapeseed and Mustard

Rajasthan, UP, Haryana

10

Soyabean

Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

11

Sunflower

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra

12

TOTAL OIL SEEDS

MP, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

13

Sugarcane

UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka

14

Cotton

Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh

15

Jute and Mesta

West Bengal, Bihar, Asom

16

Tea

Asom, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh

17

Coffee

Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

18

Rubber

Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka

19

Silk

Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, in India all 4 varieties of silk are available: Mulberry, tussar, eri and muga. Mulberry is main variety, while tussar is mainly found in Bihar.

20

Tobacco

Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka


IMPORTANT  RIVER  VALLEY  PROJECTS

Sr. No.



1

Bhakra Nangal Project

On Satluj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.

2

Mandi Project

On Beas in HP.

3

Chambal Valley Project

On Chambal in MP &Rajasthan. 3 Dams are there: Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam.

4

Damodar Valley Project

On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA.

5

Hirakud Project

On Mahanadi in Odisha. World’s Longest Dam: 4801 m.

6

Rihand Project

On Son in Mirzapur. Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir.

7

Kosi Project

On Kosi in N. Bihar.

8

Mayurkashi Project

Om Mayurkashi in West Bengal.

9

Kakrapara Project

On Tapti in Gujarat.

10

Nizamsagar Project

On Manjra in Telangana.

11

Nagarjuna Sagar Project

On Krishna in Telangana and AP.

12

Tungabhadra Project

On Tungabhadra in AP& Karnataka

13

Shivasamudram Project

On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the oldest river valley project in India.

14

Tata Hydel Scheme

On Bhima in Maharashtra.

15

Sharavathi Hydel Project

On Jog falls in Karnataka

16

Kundah & Periyar Project

In Tamil Nadu.

17

Farakka Project

On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation.

18

Ukai Project

On Tapti in Gujarat.

19

Mahi Project

On Mahi in Gujarat.

20

Salal Project

On Chenab in J&K.

21

Mata Tila Multipurpose Project

On Betwa in UP & MP.

22

Thein Project

On Ravi in Punjab.

23

Pong Dam

On Beas in Punjab.

24

Tehri Project

On Bhagirthi in Uttarakhand.

25

Sardar Sarovar Project

On Narmada in Gujarat & MP.

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