|Table of contents
|Discovery and Time
|Geographical Extent and Important Sites:
|Town planning and Structures
|Art and Craft:
|End / Decline of Indus Valley Civilization:
|Features of Harrapan Period:
Indus Valley Civilization marks the beginning of the history of India. It flourished around 4700 years ago in the western part of Asia which comes in contemporary Pakistan and Western India.
Indus Valley Civilization existed between 3300-1500 BC in three phases namely early, mature and late phases.
Indus Valley Civilization
Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and some parts of western UP.
In Pakistan: Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in Western Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhudaro (Sindh), etc.
In India: In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangam (Rajasthan), Banwali (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP). The largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. Dr. J.P. Joshi and Dr. R.S. Bisht were involved in it.
Three phases of IVC are:
• the Early Harappan Phase from 3300 to 2600 BCE,
• the Mature Harappan Phase from 2600 to 1900 BCE, and
• the Late Harappan Phase from 1900 to 1500 BCE.
The Harappan culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. Harappa and Mohenjodaro each had its own citadel or acropolis, which was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class.
The Harappan villages, mostly situated near the flood plains, produced sufficient
Wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesame, lentil, chickpea and mustard were produced.
Millets are also found from sites in Gujarat. While rice uses were relatively rare.
The Indus people were the earliest people to produce cotton. While the prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grain, it is more difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices.
Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the bull was known,
and archaeologists extrapolate shows oxen were also used for ploughing.
Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid lands, where irrigation was probably
required for agriculture.
Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan,
but not in Punjab or Sindh.
The Harappans were very well acquainted with the manufacturing and use of Bronze.
The importance of trade in the life of the Indus people is witnessed by the presence of numerous seals, uniform script and regulated weights and measures in a wide area.
In Harappa numerous terracotta figurines of women have been found. In one figurine a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a woman.
The IVC declined around 1800 BCE but the actual reasons behind its demise are still debated. One theory claims that Indo-European tribe i.e. Aryans invaded and conquered the IVC.
1. Town Planning:
The best terracota figure from Kalibangan is that a charging bull which is considered to signify the "realistic and powerful folk art of Harappan Age".
Most noteworthy is a cylindrical seal, depicting a female figure between two male figures, fighting or threatening with spears.
|1. What is the geographical extent of the Indus Valley Civilization?
|2. What are some important sites associated with the Indus Valley Civilization?
|3. How did town planning and structures contribute to the Indus Valley Civilization?
|4. What was the role of agriculture in the Indus Valley Civilization?
|5. How did the Indus Valley Civilization decline or come to an end?