Discovery and Time
- B. Dayaram Sahni discovered Harappa in 1921.
- D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922.
- As per Radiocarbon dating, it spreads from the year 2500-1750 BC.
Geographical Exent: Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of western UP.
Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in Western Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhudaro (Sindh), etc.
In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangam (Rajasthan), Banwali (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP).
Largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. Dr. J.P. Joshi and Dr. R.S. Bisht were involved in it.
- Elaborate town planning. It follows the grid system. Roads well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular block.
- Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building material.
- Their drainage system shows developed sense of health and sanitation.
- The towns were divided into two parts: upper part or citadel and lower part.
- In Mohnjodaro, a big public bath (great bath) has been found.
- Used wooden ploughs
- Produced sufficient to feed themselves.Food grains were stored in graneries.
Art and Craft:
- The harrapan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
- Bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. Tools were mostly made of copper and bronze.
- Cotton fabrics quite common. Woolen in winter.
- Very fond of ornaments (gold, silver, ivory, copper,etc) and dressing up.
- Ornaments were worn by both men and women .
- Potter’s wheel was in use. Played dice in games.
- Well-knit external and internal trade.
- Barter system was there.
- A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal.
- Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess.
- Phallyus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent.
- Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped.
- Dead bodies were placed in north-south orientation.
- Not yet deciphered.
- The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs).
End / Decay:
- The Harappan culture lasted for around 1,000 years.
- Invasion of the Aryans, recurrent floods , social breakup of Harappans, earthquakes, major ecological changes etc. are listed as possible causes.