International Cooperation and Current Developments UPSC Notes | EduRev

UPSC Mains: International Relations, Social Issues & others

UPSC : International Cooperation and Current Developments UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Global Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities 2005-2015
  • India is a signatory of the Hyogo Framework for Action, which was adopted globally to reduce disaster losses in lives and economic and environmental assets of communities and countries. 
  • The framework has set three strategic goals and five priority action areas regarding integrating disaster risk reduction (DRR) into sustainable development policies, capacity building and preparedness and vulnerability reduction.

The three strategic goals of the Hyogo Framework for Action along with steps taken by India towards its implementation:
(a) Goal 1: "The more effective integration of disaster risk considerations into sustainable development policies, planning and programming at all levels, with a special emphasis on disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and vulnerability reduction;"

  • With the enactment of the DM Act, 2005, and preparation of the disaster management plan, 2016, the government's present focus is to implement the various provisions under them.
  • All the government programs are being designed following the principle of "do no harm".

(b) Goal 2: "The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities at all levels, in particular at the community level, that can systematically contribute to building resilience to hazards;"

  • Strategies have been adopted to strengthen SDMAs and DDMAs.
  • Comprehensive Human Resource Development Program is being prepared for the entire country.
  • Partnerships with Civil Society are being strengthened.

(c) Goal 3: "The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the design and implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes in the reconstruction of affected communities."

  • "Build Back Better" is the underlining principle adopted by the Government for all post-reconstruction and recovery activities.
Five Priority Actions under the Hyogo Framework
  1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.
  2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning.
  3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.
  4. Reduce the underlying risk factors.
  5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR)
  • The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement that recognizes that the State has the primary role in reducing disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders, including the local government, the private sector, and other stakeholders.
  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held in March 2015 in Sendai (Miyagi, Japan). It is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.

India is committed to achieving the 7 goals set under the framework through systematic and sustainable efforts.

The Four Priorities for Action under the Sendai Framework

  1. Understanding disaster risk: Disaster risk management should be based on an Understanding disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment.
  2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk: Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership.
  3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience: Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, and the environment.
  4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction: The recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures.
    (i) India has been designated as the champion for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) to facilitate regional support towards enabling community resilience in the Asia-Pacific region. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has declared India first regional champion after the Sendai Agreement.
The Sendai Framework Readiness Review, UNISDR 2017

Critical data gaps exist in specific areas of disaster loss, in all areas of international cooperation, and for many aspects of early warning, risk information and disaster risk reduction strategies. The Review confirms that unless gaps in data availability, quality and accessibility are addressed, countries' ability to assure accurate, timely and high quality monitoring and reporting of implementation across all Targets and Priorities of the Sendai Framework will be severely impaired.
A Global Partnership for Disaster-related Data for Sustainable Development would facilitate a collaborative, multi­stakeholder effort (bringing together governments, international organizations, the private sector, civil society groups, and the statistics and data communities), to optimize and operationalize existing and future disaster-related data in support of national and sub-national disaster risk reduction efforts.

2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
In the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, ten of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have targets related to disaster risk, firmly establishing the role of disaster risk reduction in realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Paris Agreement at CoP 21
In the Paris Agreement, adopted at the 21st Conference of Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2015, Member States committed to holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C, with the aim to "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change"

Partnerships with International Agencies

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

  • The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) serves as the focal point for coordination among all stakeholders involved in disaster reduction activities. 
  • The Government of India has contributed US$ 1 million in November, 2016 in 7th Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction and signed a Statement of Cooperation to promote regional capacity buildings for the Asia Pacific Region in the field of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). UNISDR has established following mechanism/ vehicles to achieve its objectives:
The World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR)

It is a series of United Nations conferences focusing on disaster risk reduction and climate risk management in sustainable development. The conferences bring together government officials and other stakeholders to discuss how to strengthen development sustainability by managing disaster and climate risks. The conferences have been hosted by Japan: in Yokohama in 1994, in Kobe in 2005 and in Sendai in 2015.

Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (GPDRR)

It acts as the main global forum for emphasis on disaster risk reduction. It assesses the progress made in implementing the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). It meets biannually and Indian delegation participated in it in Cancun, Mexico in 2017 where NDMA Guidelines on Museums was also launched during the summit.

Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR)

To monitor and share the country's progress at a regional platform for Asian-Pacific region, AMCDRR was conceptualized. It provides a platform for engagement of Ministers of about 61 countries, dealing with Disaster Management for plan and policy making at regional level in line with the global framework on disaster risk reduction. It meets biannually. The 2nd and 7th AMCDRR were hosted by Government of India in 2007 and 2016 respectively.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
  • The United Nations office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) was formed in December 1991 by the General Assembly to strengthen United Nations Organizations' response to complex emergencies and natural disasters. UNOCHA has established following mechanism/ vehicles to achieve its objectives:
  • United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC): It is a stand by team of disaster management professionals which are nominated and funded by member governments, UNOCHA, UNDP and operational humanitarian UN Agencies such as WFP, UNICEF and WHO. The Government of India joined the membership of UNDAC in 2001.
  • International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG): It is a global network of more than 80 countries and disaster response organizations under the United Nations umbrella. 
  • It deals with urban search and rescue (USAR) related issues. Members of INSARAG are both earthquake-prone and responding countries and organisations. Instructors from India participate in the mock exercises organized by the INSARAG. India was the Chairman of INSARAG Asia Pacific Regional Group in 2005-06.
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)

The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a global partnership program administered by the World Bank Group. It helps developing countries - particularly those identified as the most vulnerable natural disaster "hotspots" - enhance their capacity for disaster prevention, emergency preparedness, response, and recovery. It also supports developing countries to:

  • mainstream disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in development strategies and investment programs, and
  • Improve the quality and timeliness of resilient recovery and reconstruction following a disaster.

It was launched in September 2006 to support implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (FIFA). India became a member in 2013.

SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC)

The 13th SAARC Summit at Dhaka in November 2005 considered the issues of regional cooperation for preparedness and mitigation of national disasters and approved the offer of India to set up a SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) in New Delhi.

South Asia Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN)

SADKN web portal is a platform for networking and knowledge sharing for the region. It brings together various agencies and creates an extensive knowledge network on disasters for the region to share information, data and research in DRR. It is a network of networks with one regional and eight national portals.

Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC)

A resolution was adopted at the United Nations General Assembly in 1997 to reduce damage from natural disasters substantially by designating the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Following a series of national conferences held from 1994 to 1997 to discuss the cooperation for disaster reduction, a ministerial level conference was held in Kobe, Japan in 1995 in which 28 countries from Asia and other regions participated. It adopted the Kobe declaration which includes an agreement to consider creating a system, which has the functions of a disaster reduction centre for the Asia region. The Asia Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC) was thus established in Kobe in 1998 following an agreement from the participating countries with the Japanese government.

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC)

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) is established in 1986 at Bangkok, Thailand. It is a non-profit, non­political, autonomous, regional organization serving as a regional centre in Asia-Pacific for promoting disaster preparedness, disaster mitigation, awareness generation, exchange of information, community participation etc. In 2004, the ADPC became an international body (inter-governmental organization).

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was established in 1994. The ARF membership including India, which joined in 1996, is 25 countries. It is the Principal forum for Security Dialogue in Asia and complements the various bilateral alliances and dialogues, underpinning the region's security architecture. The ARF is premised on the idea drawn from the ASEAN experience that a process of dialogue can produce qualitative improvements in political relationships. It provides a platform for members to discuss current regional security issues and develop cooperative measures to enhance peace and security.
As all ASEAN members are automatically ARF members, India participates in the ARF meetings and disaster relief exercises.

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