Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10
  1. Agriculture means land cultivation. It also includes animal husbandry and fishing.
  2. At present in different parts of India, the types of farming being carried out are primitive subsistence farming, intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.
  3. Primitive subsistence farming is characterised by small and scattered landholdings and use of primitive tools. The farmers do not use fertilisers and high-yielding varieties of seeds.
  4. Intensive subsistence farming is carried out in the areas with high population pressure on land. Irrigation, fertilisers and pesticides are used to get maximum output from limited land. Various machines are introduced.
  5. Commercial farming is characterised by use of higher doses of modern inputs in order to obtain higher productivity.
  6. Plantation farming, a form of commercial farming, involves growing of a single crop on a large area.
  7. In India, there are three crop seasons — Kharif, Rabi, Zaid.
    1. Kharif — It starts with the onset of the monsoon and continues till the beginning of winter (June-July to September-October). The kharif crops include rice, maize, millet, cotton, jute, groundnut, moong, urad, etc.
    2. Rabi — It starts with the beginning of winter and continues till the beginning of summer (October-December to April-June). The rabi crops include wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds.
    3. Zaid — This is a short crop season in between the rabi and the kharif season. Crops like watermelons, muskmelons, cucumber, some vegetables and fodder crops are the major crops.
  8. India produces a wide variety of crops, namely cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fibre crops, beverage crops, cash crops.
  9. Cereals — It covers about three-fourth of the total cropped area of the country. The principal cereals grown in India are — rice, wheat, millets, maize, pulses.
  10. Rice — It requires a temperature between 20° to 27°C and a rainfall above 100 cm.
  11. Wheat — It requires a temperature between 16° to 22°C and a rainfall between 50-75 cm.
  12. Millets —Jowar, Bajra, Ragi.
  13. Fibre crops — Cotton and jute are the two important fibre crops grown in India.
  14. Beverage crops — Tea and coffee are important beverage crops.
  15. Cash crops — The major cash crops are sugarcane, rubber, tobacco, spices and fruits and vegetables.
  16. Persian wheel has been replaced by water pump, the plough by tiller and harrow drawn by tractor, the bullock cart by truck.
  17. Flooding of fields is being replaced by drip irrigation. Chemical fertilisers took the place of farm manure.
  18. Chemical fertilisers are being replaced by bio-fertilisers.
  19. The technological advancements gave birth to Green Revolution, White Revolution or Operation Flood.
  20. The Government abolished the Zamindari system.
  21. Radio and television inform the farmers about the new improved techniques of farming.
  22. Rural banks, cooperative societies and Kisan Credit Card ensure easy availability of funds to farmers.
  23. Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy.
  24. Considering the importance of agriculture the Government of India took steps to modernise agriculture.
  25. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established.
  26. Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition but our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector, particularly in irrigation power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
  27. The foodgrain production has increased from 51 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 209.8 million tonnes in 1999-2000.
  28. A food stock of 44.7 million tonnes had been accumulated in 2001.
  29. In spite of the surplus food grains, many Indians do not have enough money to feed themselves.
  30. There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oilseeds and crops which also act as industrial raw material.
  31. In 2000-01, India produced only 196.8 million tonnes of food grain.
  32. The use of more and more land for construction of factories, warehouses and shelters has reduced the land under cultivation and new fertile land for farming is no longer available.
  33. Fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides which once showed a dramatic result are now being held responsible for degrading soils.
  34. Periodic scarcity of water has led to reduction in area under irrigation. Inefficient water management has led to waterlogging and salinity.
  35. Biotechnology can be used to modify different crops genetically to increase the yield per hectare.
  36. Biotechnology is environmentally safe and sustainable.
  37. Globalisation is based on the philosophy of free and open international trade.
  38. Globalisation ensures that good quality goods at competitive prices alone will survive in the market.
  39. India has an abundance of human labour. Every effort will have to be made to raise their efficiency and equip them with new and advanced tools, implements and machines to enable them to compete with their counterparts in other parts of the world.
  40. India will have to develop techniques which the developed countries have been using.
  41. An unrestricted united national market for farm products within the country must be set up. This will require the development of roads, electricity, irrigation and credit facilities to farmers and traders.
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

shortcuts and tricks

,

Free

,

Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

,

Viva Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

practice quizzes

,

past year papers

,

study material

,

Exam

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

MCQs

,

ppt

,

Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

video lectures

,

Key Concepts - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

;