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Key Concepts: Agriculture - Social Studies (SST) Class 10


  1. Agriculture means land cultivation. It also includes animal husbandry and fishing.
  2. At present in different parts of India, the types of farming being carried out are primitive subsistence farming, intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.
    Key Concepts: Agriculture | Social Studies (SST) Class 10
  3. Primitive subsistence farming is characterised by small and scattered landholdings and use of primitive tools. The farmers do not use fertilisers and high-yielding varieties of seeds.
  4. Intensive subsistence farming is carried out in the areas with high population pressure on land. Irrigation, fertilisers and pesticides are used to get maximum output from limited land. Various machines are introduced.
  5. Commercial farming is characterised by use of higher doses of modern inputs in order to obtain higher productivity.
  6. Plantation farming, a form of commercial farming, involves growing of a single crop on a large area.
  7. In India, there are three crop seasons — Kharif, Rabi, Zaid.
    1. Kharif — It starts with the onset of the monsoon and continues till the beginning of winter (June-July to September-October). The kharif crops include rice, maize, millet, cotton, jute, groundnut, moong, urad, etc.
    2. Rabi — It starts with the beginning of winter and continues till the beginning of summer (October-December to April-June). The rabi crops include wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds.
    3. Zaid — This is a short crop season in between the rabi and the kharif season. Crops like watermelons, muskmelons, cucumber, some vegetables and fodder crops are the major crops.

Question for Key Concepts: Agriculture
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Which type of farming is characterized by the use of higher doses of modern inputs to obtain higher productivity?
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  1. India produces a wide variety of crops, namely cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fibre crops, beverage crops, cash crops.
  2. Cereals — It covers about three-fourth of the total cropped area of the country. The principal cereals grown in India are — rice, wheat, millets, maize, pulses.
  3. Rice — It requires a temperature between 20° to 27°C and a rainfall above 100 cm.
  4. Wheat — It requires a temperature between 16° to 22°C and a rainfall between 50-75 cm.
  5. Millets —Jowar, Bajra, Ragi.
  6. Fibre crops — Cotton and jute are the two important fibre crops grown in India.
  7. Beverage crops — Tea and coffee are important beverage crops.
  8. Cash crops — The major cash crops are sugarcane, rubber, tobacco, spices and fruits and vegetables.
  9. Persian wheel has been replaced by water pump, the plough by tiller and harrow drawn by tractor, the bullock cart by truck.
  10. Flooding of fields is being replaced by drip irrigation. Chemical fertilisers took the place of farm manure.
  11. Chemical fertilisers are being replaced by bio-fertilisers.
  12. The technological advancements gave birth to Green Revolution, White Revolution or Operation Flood.
  13. The Government abolished the Zamindari system.
  14. Radio and television inform the farmers about the new improved techniques of farming.
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FAQs on Key Concepts: Agriculture - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture is the practice of cultivating land, growing crops, and raising animals for food, fuel, fiber, and other products. It is a primary sector of the economy and a vital source of food and livelihood for the majority of the world's population.
2. What are the types of agriculture?
Ans. There are four types of agriculture: subsistence agriculture, commercial agriculture, intensive agriculture, and extensive agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is the production of food for the farmer's family, while commercial agriculture is the production of crops and livestock for sale. Intensive agriculture involves high inputs of labor, capital, and technology to maximize yields, while extensive agriculture is characterized by low inputs and low yields.
3. What are the benefits of agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture has numerous benefits, including the production of food, fiber, and fuel, the preservation of natural resources, the creation of jobs and economic growth, and the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. Agriculture also plays a critical role in ensuring food security and mitigating the impacts of climate change.
4. What are the challenges facing agriculture?
Ans. Agriculture faces several challenges, including climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity, pest and disease outbreaks, and the loss of biodiversity. These challenges are exacerbated by population growth, urbanization, and changing dietary preferences. Additionally, small-scale farmers often lack access to credit, technology, and markets, which limits their productivity and income.
5. How can we promote sustainable agriculture?
Ans. Sustainable agriculture involves practices that enhance productivity while minimizing the negative impacts on the environment and society. Some of the ways to promote sustainable agriculture include using agroecological approaches that integrate ecological principles with social and economic factors, conserving natural resources such as water and soil, promoting biodiversity, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and supporting small-scale farmers with access to credit, technology, and markets. Education and awareness campaigns can also help to promote sustainable agriculture by encouraging consumers to make informed choices and supporting policies that incentivize sustainable practices.
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