The Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary form of government, both at the Centre and in the states. Articles 74 and 75 deal with the parliamentary system at the Centre and Articles 163 and 164 in the states. The presidential system of government, on the other hand, is one in which the executive is not responsible to the legislature for its policies and acts, and is constitutionally independent of the legislature in respect of its term of office.
FEATURES OF PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT
The features or principles of parliamentary government in India are:
1. Nominal and Real Executives
The President is the nominal executive (de jure executive or titular executive) while the Prime Minister is the real executive (de facto executive). Thus, the President is head of the State, while the Prime Minister is head of the government.
2. Majority Party Rule
The political party which secures majority seats in the Lok Sabha forms the government. The leader of that party is appointed as the Prime Minister by the President; other ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the prime minister.
3. Collective Responsibility
The principle of collective responsibility implies that the Lok Sabha can remove the ministry (i.e., council of ministers headed by the prime minister) from office by passing a vote of no confidence.
4. Political Homogeneity
Usually members of the council of ministers belong to the same political party, and hence they share the same political ideology. In case of coalition government, the ministers are bound by consensus.
5. Double Membership
The ministers are members of both the legislature and the executive. This means that a person cannot be a minister without being a member of the Parliament.
6. Leadership of the Prime Minister
The Prime Minister plays the leadership role in this system of government. He is the leader of council of ministers, leader of the Parliament and leader of the party in power.
7. Dissolution of the Lower House
The lower house of the Parliament (Lok Sabha) can be dissolved by the President on recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The ministers operate on the principle of secrecy of procedure and cannot divulge information about their proceedings, policies and decisions. They take the oath of secrecy before entering their office.
The oath of secrecy to the ministers is administered by the President.
REASONS FOR ADOPTING PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM
1. Familiarity with the System.
2. Preference to More Responsibility