FEATURES OF COALITION GOVERNMENT
The features or implications of coalition politics or coalition government are very well summarised by J.C. Johari in the following way:
1. A coalition implies the existence of at least two partners.
2. The purpose of a coalition adjustment is to seize power in our country, we have seen coalitions coming up either before the elections or after the election . The pre-poll coalition is consider advantageous because it provides a common platform to the parties in order to wooed electorate on the basis of a joint manifesto.
FORMATION OF COALITION GOVERNMENTS:
the first four Lok Sabha elections (1952, 1957, 1962 and 1967), the Congress party secured the required majority to form the government at the Centre. Even though there was a split in the Congres party in 1969, the minority government of Indira Gandhi man agreed to continue with the outside support of the CPI, the DMK and other parties. Again, the Congress party won the 1971 elections and formed a single-party government.
MERITS OF COALITION GOVERNMENT:
The various advantages or strengths of the coalition governments are as follows:
1. There is an accommodation of diverse interests in the functioning of the government. A coalition government acts as a channel to meet the expectations and redress the grievances of different groups.
2. India is a highly diversified country. There are different cultures, languages, castes, religions and ethnic groups, and all these get represented in the coalition governments. This means that a coalition government is more representative in nature and it better reflects the popular opinion of the electorate.
3. There is consensual decision-making in the coalition governments.
4. Coalition politics strengthens the federal fabric of the Indian political system. This is because a coalition government is more sensitive and responsive to the regional demands and concerns than the single-party government.
DEMERITS OF COALITION GOVERNMENT:
The various disadvantages or weaknesses of the coalition governments are as follows:
1. They are unstable or prone to instability. The difference of opinion among the coalition partners on policy issues leads to the collapse of the government.
2. Leadership of the Prime Minister is a principle of parliamentary form of government. This principle is curtailed in a coalition government as the Prime Minister is required to consult the coalition partners before taking any major decision. The critics have called them as "Super Prime Ministers’ or Ultra Prime Ministers'
3. There is a possibility of the smaller constituents of the coalition government playing the role of a "Kingmaker. They demand more than their strength in the Parliament.
4. The leaders of regional parties bring in the regional factors in the national decision-making. They pressurise the central executive to act on their lines; otherwise, they would threaten to with-draw from the coalition.
5. The size of the Council of Ministers in a coalition government is generally quite large. This is because the ministry has to reflect all the constituents of the coalition.