The Draft Constitution provided for the direct election of the governor on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
But the Constituent Assembly opted for the present system of appointment of governor by the president because of the following reason:
The Constitution lays down only two qualifications for the appointment of a person as a governor. These are:
The Constitution lays down the following conditions for the governor's office:
Term of governor’s office: Five years
Powers and Functions of Governor
The powers and functions of the governor can be studied under the following heads:
1. Executive Powers
The executive powers and functions of the Governor are:
(i) All executive actions of the government of a state are formally taken in his name.
(ii) He can make rules for more convenient transactions of the business of a state government and for the allocation among the ministers of the said business.
(iii) He appoints the chief minister, advocate general of a state, election commissioner, appoints the chairman and members of the state public service commission.
(iv) He can seek any information relating to the administration of the affairs of the state and proposals for legislation from the chief minister.
(v) He can require the chief minister to submit for the consideration of the council of ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the council.
(vi) He can recommend the imposition of constitutional emergency in a state to the president.
2. Legislative Powers
A governor is an integral part of the state legislature.
In that capacity, he has the following legislative powers and functions:
(i) He can summon or prorogue the state legislature and dissolve the state legislative assembly.
(ii) He can send messages to the house or houses of the state legislature, with respect to a bill pending in the legislature or otherwise.
(iii) He can appoint any member of the State legislative assembly to preside over its proceedings when the offices of both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker fall vacant. Similarly, he can appoint any member of the state legislature council to preside over its proceedings when the offices of both Chairman and Deputy Chairman fall vacant.
(iv) He nominates one-sixth of the members of the state legislative council from amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service, He can nominate one member to the state legislature assembly from the Anglo-Indian Community.
(v) He decides on the question of disqualification of members of the state legislature in consultation with the Election Commission.
(vi) When a bill is sent to the governor after it is passed by state legislature, he can:
(vii) He can promulgate ordinances when the state legislature is not in session. These ordinances must be approved by the state legislature within six weeks from its reassembly.
3. Financial Powers
The financial powers and functions of the governor are:
(i) He sees that the Annual Financial Statement (state budget) is laid before the state legislature.
(ii) Money bills can be introduced in the state legislature only with his prior recommendation.
(iii) No demand for a grant can be made except on his recommendation.
(iv) He can make advances out of the Contingency Fund of the state to meet any unforeseen expenditure.
(v) He constitutes a finance commission after every five years to review the financial position of the panchayats and the municipalities.
4. Judicial Powers
The judicial powers and functions of the governor are:
(i) He can grant pardons, reprieves, respites, and remissions of punishment or suspend, remit, and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends.
(ii) He is consulted by the president while appointing the judges of the concerned state high court.
(iii) He makes appointments, postings, and promotions of the district judges in consultation with the state high court.
(iv) He also appoints persons to the judicial service of the state (other than district judges) in consultation with the state high court and the State Public Service Commission.