NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NDMA)
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex statutory body for disaster management in India.
The NDMA was formally constituted on 27th September 2006, in accordance with the Disaster Management Act, 2005 with Prime Minister as its Chairperson and nine other members, and one such member to be designated as Vice-Chairperson.
Mandate: Its primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response. It is also the apex body to lay down policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
Vision: To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, proactive, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation.
Evolution of NDMA
Functions and Responsibilities of NDMA
Institutional Framework for Disaster Management in India
• The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has provided the legal and institutional framework for disaster management in India at the national, state and district levels.
• National Executive Committee (NEC)
• National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
• National Disaster response force (NDRF)
State level Institutions
• State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
• State Executive Committee (SEC)- Headed by the Chief Secretary of the state, SEC has the responsibility for coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan as provided under the DM Act.
Achievements of Disaster Planning in India
• Cyclone Fani, was one of the worst cyclones to hit India in last two decades.
• There has been significant reduction in mortality rate from the loss of over 10000 lives in 1999 during Super Cyclone in Odisha to a mortality of 16 in 2019 during cyclone Fani.
• NDMA runs intensive earthquake and extreme weather events awareness campaigns and provides guidelines regarding natural and man-made disasters.
• NDMA has released Guidelines on School Safety, Hospital Safety and Minimum Standards for Shelter, Food, Water, Sanitation and Medical Cover in Relief Camps.
Shortcomings and challenges
• Questions were raised about the role of NDMA during Uttarakhand Flooding in 2013, where it failed to timely inform people about the flash floods and landslides. The post disaster relief response had been equally poor.
• A CAG report noted that there were delays in completion of projects under the flood management programmes. It noted the projects were not taken up in an integrated manner and blamed NDMA for institutional failures for poor flood management.
• Devastations during Kerala Floods in 2018 and Chennai Floods in 2015 were eye-opening for the institutions regarding preparedness for the disaster situation.
• Policy guidelines at the macro level are needed that would inform and guide the preparation and implementation of disaster management and development plans across sectors.
• Building in a culture of preparedness and mitigation is the need of the hour.
• Operational guidelines should be framed for integrating disaster management practices into development, and specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters.
• Robust early warning systems coupled with effective response plans at district, state and national levels should be put in place.
• Community, NGOs, CSOs and the media should be involved at all stages of disaster management.
• Climate risk management should be addressed through adaptation and mitigation.
• India should learn from best global practices.