Q.1. What is globalisation? Explain.
Ans. Globalisation is generally associated with economy as the free movement of capital, goods, technology, ideas and people across the globe. Globalisation in a broader sense also includes cultural exchanges between different countries of the world. In modern world, globalisation has acquired special significance due to development of Internet technology and tele-communication. Therefore, globalisation involves the following features:
(i) Economic freedom to trade internationally.
(ii) Migration in search of employment and a better life.
(iii) Cultural exchange like the spread of Buddhism and knowledge.
The interlinking of the world is a continuous process from the past. In the past, interlinking involved only a few travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims who travelled vast distances in search of knowledge, opportunity, spiritual fulfillments or to escape persecution. In modern days, interlinking is faster and involves more people. In other words, the world is shrinking in terms of communication and trade.
Q.2. Trace the origin of Silk Route and its significance.
Ans. The Silk Route is one of the world’s oldest and historically most important trade route which affected the cultures of China, Central Asia and the West. It had many branches leading to different regions, including ancient India. It played an important role as a means of pre-modern trade and cultural exchange between different regions. The Romans learned about the Silk Route from the Parthians around 53 B.C.E. They used the word “Seres”or the silk people to refer to the Chinese. The modern word “Silk Route” was coined by a German scholar, Von Richthofen, in the nineteenth century. Silk was considered the most precious by the Romans even though it was only one of the many commodities that was traded between China and the world through this route.
Q.3. How is culture a great agent of globalisation? Explain with example.
Ans. Trade and cultural exchange went hand in hand. Religion was perhaps one of the most important commodities carried along the Silk Route. Buddhism reached China from India along the northern branch of the route. The Karakorum passes were used as a means to explore the faiths and scriptures by the missionaries.
Art, literature and philosophical ideas were exchanged and in the process, it affected the cultures of different countries to which the route branched out. Even Christian missionaries travelled along the Silk Route to Asia, followed by Muslim preachers a few centuries later. The long rule of British in India also left an indelible western influence in different ways.
Q.4. Explain how Europe was able to leap ahead of other continents by the 18th century.
Ans. Europe made a leap ahead of others due to scientific and revolutionary ideas rooted in different developments.
(i) Renaissance or rebirth of knowledge in which classical Greek and Roman art, architecture, literature were rediscovered.
(ii) The Industrial Revolution, leading to new inventions and technology.
(iii) Ideas and principles influenced by the American Revolution and French Revolution in the form of democracy, liberty, capitalism, nationalism etc.
Q.5. Discuss why the Europeans were motivated to establish colonies.
Ans. Europe became the centre of world trade by the nineteenth century, mainly sustained by colonies. Colonisation of Americas were motivated more by the greed of wealth and search for a better life. On the other hand, colonisation of Asian and African countries was also motivated by conditions in Europe, caused by the Industrial Revolution and greed for economic and political dominance of the world.
Many factors motivated the Europeans to establish colonies:
(i) Some Europeans left for America seeking better life and some were dissenters (those who refuses to accept established beliefs and practices) and prisoners.
(ii) The Industrial Revolution created the need for unlimited resources and cheap labour. They needed raw materials to feed the growing industries. They also needed markets for distribution.They needed colonies.
(iii) Missionary zeal of the Jesuits and nationalism inspired further exploration, conversion and territorial expansion.
Q.6. Discuss one of the important causes and effects of the development of global agriculture.
Ans. Cause : The abolition of Corn Laws led to the import of cheap agricultural products in England. Unable to compete with imports, many left agricultural activities and flocked to the cities. This led to large scale migration of people to cities and overseas. This indirectly led to global agriculture and rapid urbanisation, a prerequisite of industrial growth. Countries like Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia increased their food productivity to meet the British needs and in the process, slowly became industrialised to different degrees.
Effects : Nearly 50 million people migrated from Europe to America and Australia in the nineteenth century. Another estimate was the migration of about 150 millions of the world population, mostly from Europe, who crossed the oceans for a better life. By the end of the nineteenth century, a global agricultural economy replaced the earlier self-sufficient economy. Industries and factories helped in a better flow of capital and technologies. Colonies were firmly established and they provided cheap raw materials and labour, who manned most of the railways in Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean.
Q.7. What were the effects of colonialism on Indian agricultural export in the nineteenth century?
Ans. The effects of colonialism in Indian agriculture was the destruction of self-sufficiency in rural areas. Some of the important features are listed below:
(i) The traditional cotton handlooms and products could not compete with the industrial manufactured cotton textiles from Britain.
(ii) High tariff on Indian textiles and import taxes on Indian goods entering Britain severely affected Indian farmers.
(iii) Indigo plantation and other cash crops replaced food crops, leading to shortage of food, especially during famines, etc.
(iv) Moneylenders and landlords exploited farmers who were indebted to them and many became landless labourers.
Q.8. Explain how the world was transformed after the World War (1914-1918).
Ans. The Great War transformed the world drastically with the adoption of a new mode of warfare based on modern weapons of mass destruction. They used machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a mass scale. The number of deaths reached up to 9 million and of the injured reached upto 20 million at the end of the war. Most of the victims belonged to young generations or the workforce. As a result, it reduced the workforce in Europe, thereby reducing household income.
Economic transformation was in the form of shift in investment and capital distribution. The wartime situations encouraged production of war-related goods. Society also reorganised to meet wartime challenges, such as the increasing role played by women in areas previously predominated by men.
Politically, the war also brought new allies and new enemies between powerful countries. The war in Europe transformed the US from being an international debtor to international creditor. Russian revolution of 1917 also affected global relations when the first communist government was established under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. Colonies changed hands while some new nations emerged.
Q.9. What were the immediate effects of the World War on European agriculture?
Europe paid a heavy price during and after the World War, especially in terms of economic status.
(i) America, Australia and Canada became main exporters of agricultural and manufactured goods during the war. For example, Eastern Europe was a major supplier of wheat products in pre-war time. Their production ceased during the wartime and Europe depended on wheat imports from USA, Canada and Australia.
(ii) There were shortage of food during the war as all form of production ceased during the war. The countryside were especially hit due to bad crops and ravages of war.
(iii) In Russia, the war expenses and death tolls at the front led to an uprising which became the Russian Revolution of 1917. It led to the foundation of Communism.
(iv) When the war ended, Eastern Europe revived its wheat production, leading to a glut in the economy. In other words, grain prices fell as a result of over-production or excess in supply. Rural incomes declined and farmers fell deeper into debts.
Q.10. Trace the different stages of development of the assembly line production.
Ans. Henry Ford, the pioneer of the assembly line production, was inspired by the assembly line of a Chicago slaughter house which he adapted to his new car plant in Detroit. Accordingly, the workers were forced to repeat a single task mechanically and continuously, standing in front of a conveyer belt with no respite or break to delay the motions. As a result, Ford cars came out of the assembly line at three minute intervals, much faster than any other methods. The TModel Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.
The stress and the pressure of working monotonous led many workers to quit their jobs. Henry Ford doubled the daily wages to five dollars in January 1914. He banned trade unions from operating in his plants. He was able to recover his wages by repeatedly speeding up the production line and forcing the workers to work even harder.
Q.11. Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament? Explain.
Ans. The impact of the Great Depression in India was felt especially in the agricultural sector.
(i) It was evident that Indian economy was closely becoming integrated to global economy. India was a British colony and it exported agricultural goods and imported manufactured goods. The depression affected the Indian trade as India’s exports and imports declined extensively between 1928 and 1934. As international prices fell, prices in India also fell.
(ii) The jute growers of Bengal lamented that the traders sitting at home benefited from growing jute while the peasants suffered from rising cost of production and debts. Despite the falling prices of agricultural goods, the colonial power refused to reduce the revenue demands in cash. Peasants and farmers involved in cash crops were worst hit.
(iii) The urban salaried class and the landlords benefited from the falling prices of agricultural products and the value of rent increased. Large scale migration from villages to towns and cities also affected the urban life-styles.
Q.12. Write down important causes and effects of the Second World War.
Ans. The Second World War started in 1939 and continued up to 1945. The two warring camps were :
(i) The Allies consisting of Britain, France, Russia and the USA.
(ii) The Axis powers consisting of Germany, Japan and Italy.
Many factors caused the Second World War. The Great Depression of 1929, failure of the League of Nations, rise of dictatorship in Germany and Italy under the Nazis and Mussolini respectively were some of the important causes.
(i) About 3 per cent of the world’s population perished.
(ii) Two crucial developments shaped the post-war scenario. They were:
(a) The emergence of USA and the USSR as superpowers.
At least 6 million people died, millions more were injured. Most of the deaths took place outside the battlefields. More civilians than fighting soldiers died. Vast parts of Europe and Asia were devastated and several cities destroyed by aerial bombings. It caused enormous economic devastation and social disruption. Reconstruction was long and difficult.
(b) The establishment of international organisations like the UNO and others to maintain peace and stability.
Q.13. Discuss some important features of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Role : The IMF was to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The World Bank was an international bank for reconstruction and development aimed to finance the post-war reconstruction.
The IMF and the World Bank commenced financial operations in 1947.
(i) The western powers and especially the USA controlled the decision-making provisions such as the right to veto.
(ii) The international monetary system was to link national currencies and monetary system.
(iii) The Bretton Woods system was based on a fixed exchange rate whereby national currencies were pegged to the American dollar at a fixed rate. The dollar was anchored to gold at a fixed price of $35 per ounce of gold.