Magnetic Dipole Class 12 Notes | EduRev

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Class 12 : Magnetic Dipole Class 12 Notes | EduRev

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Magnetic Dipole

Magnetic dipole is an arrangement of two unlike magnetic poles of equal pole strength separated by a very small distance, e.g., a small bar magnet, a magnetic needle, a current carrying loop etc.

Magnetic Dipole Moment

The product of the distance (2 l) between the two poles and the pole strength of either pole is called magnetic dipole moment.

Magnetic dipole moment

M = m (2 l)

Its SI unit is ‘joule/tesla’ or ‘ampere-metre2‘.

Its direction is from south pole towards north pole.

Magnetic Field Due to a Magnetic Dipole

(1) On Axial Line

Magnetic Dipole Class 12 Notes | EduRev

If r > > l, then

B = μo / 4 π 2M / r3

(ii) On Equatorial Line

Magnetic Dipole Class 12 Notes | EduRev

B = μo / 4 π M / (r2 + l2)3 / 2

If r > > l, then

B = μo / 4 π 2M / r3

Torque Acting on a Magnetic Dipole

When a Magnetic Dipole (M) is placed in a uniform magnetic field (B), then a Torque acts on it, Which is given by

Magnetic Dipole Class 12 Notes | EduRev

τ = M * B

or τ = MB sin θ

Where θ is angle between the dipole axis and magnetic field.

Potential Energy of a Magnetic Dipole in a Uniform Magnetic Field

The work done in rotating the dipole against the action of the torque is stored as potential energy of the dipole.

Potential Energy, U = W = – MB cos θ = – M . B

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