Equatorial Region: These regions have dense forests of evergreen trees but they are not suitable for human habitation. Some medicinal forest products are gathered.
Tropical Grasslands: Agriculture and cattle-rearing are the chief occupations and wool, skins and hides the chief commercial products.
Tropical Monsoon Regions: Agriculture is the most important occupation and rice, jute and sugarcane the chief crops.
Tropical Deserts: Situated on the western side of the continents near the tropics, these regions are harsh from the human comfort point of view. Agriculture is possible only with the help of irrigation. Date is an important food product. Oil is the chief mineral resource of the middle-eastern countries.
Mediterranean Region: These regions are most famous for citrus fruits, grapes and the cultivation of cereals. Sheep and goats are also important.
Mid-latitude Deserts: In these regions, pastoral nomadic tribes rear cattle. Agriculture has not been developed.
Temperate Grasslands: These areas (steppes) of rich soil are good for the cultivation of cereals such as wheat. Extensive mechanised farming is practised in the temperate grasslands of North America, South America and Russia. Meat, wool and dairy products are also important commercial products.
The National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) incorporated as a Public Sector Undertaking (November).
National Cooperative Housing Federation of India set up.
The Housing & Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO) set up as a fully owned Government Company (April).
The National Institute of Urban Affairs set up.
The scheme of integrated development of small and medium towns initiated.
The National Capital Region Planning Board constituted (March).
The Mega city scheme launched.
National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) launched (August).
The Union Cabinet approves the Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojagar Yojana.
Cool Temperate Regions: On the western margins of continents in these regions, cereals are grown. Cattle are raised for dairy products and fishing is also important. In the eastern margins, coniferous forests provide soft wood. Lumbering, fishing and farming are also important.
Cold Temperate Regions: Temperate type forests grow here. Lumbering, fishing, hunting and trapping are important. The paper industry has also developed.
Polar Tundra Regions: Too cold for most human activity. Only mineral extraction can attract a large concentration of people in the future. Gold and oil are found in Alaska and nickel in Siberia.
Facts to be Remembered
Rationing introduced in Mumbai for the first time in the country.
The National Cooperative Consumer's Federation of India Limited registered.
Save Grain Campaign launched.
The Super Bazar, the Cooperative Store Limited started functioning.
North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited, Guwahati set up (March).
The Paddy Processing Research Centre established at Thanjavur.
All the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act came into force (July).
The standards of Weights and Measures (Approval Model) Rules came into force.
The Bureau of India Standards became functional as a statutory body (April).
The Ministry of Food Processing Industry set up (July).
The Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award instituted.
Consumer Welfare Fund created.
Food Corporation of India (FCI) authorised to sell wheat in open market (October).
FCI authorised to sell rice in open market (January).
Some foreign dairy breeds of cattle used for cross breeding in India
Country of Origin
Island of Jersey in the English channel
Fawn, with or without markings
Black and white
Red, mahogany, brown or combinations of these in white
Av. milk yield (litres in 305 days)
Av.gestation period (days)
Fat (%) in milk
I. North and North - Western
Punjab, Delhi, U.P., Rajasthan
Montgomery (Pakistan), Ferozepur
Adjoining areas of Gwalior, Etawah and surrounding area of Jammu and Chambai rivers
Tarai area of U.P. mostly between Tanakpur and Ramnagar
II. Central India
Marathwad, Berari, Nagpur, Wardha, Gaulani, Varad, Gauli Akola, Amravati, Achalpur
Ganjam, Parlakimedi Found in hills above Parlakimedi and Mandaso on the borders of Orissa and A.P.
III. South India
Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu
IV. Western India
South-western part of Gujarat state in Anand, Nadiad and Baroda districts
Gir forest of Kathiawar
Mehsana in north Gujarat; Palanpur in Banaskantha distt. and Rhadhanpur in Sabarkantha distt.
Lola, Montgomery, Lambi-Bar, Multani
Punjab, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, M.P.
Red Sindhi, Red Karachi
Imported from Karachi and Hyderabad (Sindh), Allahabad, Hasur, Bangalore, Guwahati
Kathiawarhi, Surti, Deccan other states of westernIndia, Bangalore,
Junagarh state of South Kathiawar and
North-west and western portions of Hyderabad
Dual Purpose Breeds: Cattle intermediate between the strictly milch and draught breeds Hariana
Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal and Delhi
Andhra Pradesh: Guntur, Narasaraopet, Venukonda,
Kandukar taluka of Nellore
Thari, Grey Sindhi,
South-east Sindh, Amarkot, Nalkot, Dhero Naro, Kutch deserts of west India; Marwar and Palanpur area of north Bombay
Bannai, Wadhair, Nagu
South-east, Rann of Kutch, Tharparkar in Sindh to Dholka in Ahmedabad
Draught Breeds: Bullocks, good draft animals; cows, poor millers Amritmahal
Coimbatore distt. in Tamil Nadu; Udampet, Palladam, Pollachi and other parts of south India
Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
Darjeeling, Sikkim and Bhutan
Distts. of Hassan and Tumkar in Karnataka
Arable land— Agriculture is the kingpin of our economy. Agriculture dominates all land use.
Drought-Prone Areas Programme
It aims at: