Doc: Mediterranean - Type Region and Temperate Grassland UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Doc: Mediterranean - Type Region and Temperate Grassland UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Mediterranean-Type Region

Location: This region is located on the western margins of the continents between 30° and 40° latitudes in both the hemispheres.

• This region is also known as “Winter-Rain warm Temperate Region”.
Areas
• Europe: Mediterranean coast regions of Spain, Portugal, France, Italy and Greece.
• Asia: Mediterranean coast regions of Turkey, Israel, Syria and Lebanon.
• Africa: Mediterranean coast region of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco in the North and South Western tip of the Cape Province of South Africa in South.
• Australia: Southern and South Western Coast region of Australia.
• North America: Western margin of California.
• South America: Central Chile.

Natural Environments
Climate
• This region is a transitional area between the Dry Sub-tropical Trade Wind Belt and the Rainy Cool Temperate Maritime Westerlies Belt.
• It combines the characteristics of both the regions bordering it.
• During summers, the wind-belts shifts Poleward with the result, that this transition—are comes under the influence of dry Trade Winds.
• During winters, the wind-belts shift equator-wards, with the result, that this transition area comes under the influence of the rainy Westerlies.
• Winter is the season, when rainfall is received from on-shore Westerlies, which are accompanied by temperate cyclones.
• One very important feature of the Mediterranean region is the sway of local winds, variable in nature.
• Sirocco is a hot, dry and dusty wind originated on the Sahara and blowing towards Europe. Sirocco is so prominent that it is called by many names, such as Chili in Tunisia.
• Ghibli in Libya, Leveche in Spain, Khamsin in Egypt and Malta, Gharbi in the Adriatic Sea and Aegean sea. 
• Mistral and ‘Bora’ are cold winds. Both of them blow from the continental interior of Europe towards the Mediterranean lands.

Natural Vegetation
Evergreen Broad Leaved Forests: Trees are low, but sturdy. Braks are deep fissured. Leaves are leathery. Roots are wide-spreading ‘Evergreen Oaks’ in South Europe, ‘Eucalyptus’ in Australia and ‘Redwood’ in California are the principal trees. ‘Jarra’ and ‘Karri’ are important commercial woods in the Australian areas.
 Bushes and Scrubs: Bushes are generally thorny: e.g. laurel, myrtle, lavender etc. Maquis, chaparral and mallee are the scrubs that grow in this area. All these are of the evergreen variety.
 Evergreen Coniferous Trees: These are found growing on highland areas, which are cooler. 
• Pines, firs, cypresses and cedars are the principal trees. They are tall and have needle-shaped leaves.

Cultural Environments
• The region has witnessed growth of mighty civilisations (Roman and Greek) in the past.
• Agriculture is the chief occupation, which has specialised in growing of cereals and orchard-farming.
• Mining has also made its mark in different parts. Manufacturing industries are mostly based on agricultural raw materials and mineral resources.

Cereal-growing: Wheat is the most important cereal of this region. 
• A special type of wheat, known as ‘Durram wheat’ has been developed.
• It is also called ‘Macaroni wheat’ because it is very suitable for making Macaroni.
• Rice is grown only in river-valley plains. Italy and California (USA) are notable rice-growers.

 

Geographical Epithets


1.City of Seven Hills  ----------   Rome
2.City of Golden Gate ----------  San Francisco
3.City of Skyscrapers  ----------  New York
4. Eternal City  ----------  Rome
5. Forbidden City  ----------  Lhasa
6. China's Sorrow  ----------   Hwang Ho
7. Hermit Kingdom  ----------  Damodar
8. Herrix Pond  ---------- Calm-Korea
9. Land of Morning Calm  ----------  Korea
10. Gift of the Nile  ----------  Egypt
11. Cockpit of Europe  ----------  Belgium
12. Sugar Bowl of the Wourld  ----------  Cuba
13. Roof of the World  ---------- The Pamirs
14. Windy City  ----------  Chicago
15. Yellow River ----------  Hwang Ho
16. Play Ground  of Europe  ----------  Switzerland
17. Land of  White Elephant  ----------  Thailand
18. Land of Midnight Sun ----------   Norway
19. Land of Golden Fleece ----------   Australia
 20. Key to Mediterranean ----------   Gibraltar
21. Queen of the Adriatic ----------   Venice
22. Granite city  ----------  Aberdeen
23. Isle of Pearls  ----------  Bahrain
24. Blue Montains ----------  Nilgiri


Fruit-cultivation
• Grape is also grown in plenty ‘currants’ (Levantine areas) ‘raisins’ (California) and Sultanas (Turkey) are the names of dried grapes.
• Walnut, chestnut, hazelnut, almonds etc. are the important nut-crops.
• Olive is perhaps the most important fruit-crop. It is widely used for extraction of oil.
• This region is famous for wine which are known by the names of their producing areas e.g. Sherry (Spain), Chianti (Italy), Champagne (France), Burgundy (Rhone-Saona valley) etc. Marsala (Italy) and Port-wine is a Portuguese Product.
 

Mining 
• Spain produces iron-ore, tungsten, copper, lead and mercury. Turkey is an important producer of chromium, lead and zinc. Broken Hill are of south-west Australia is famous for zinc and lead.
• France has bauxite and Algeria possesses iron ore. California is an important mineral oil producer and has gold deposits as well.

Manufacturing 
• Orchard farming is characteristic of this region. 
• These countries have, therefore, developed food-processing and fruit-canning industries. 
• Fruit juices and wine are produced and exported.
• California State is an important manufacturing area. It is famous for oil refineries and petro-chemical industries. Ship building is also an important industry here. It is also known for ‘Film industry’.
• Urban Centres—Maresille, Rome, Madrid, Lisbon, Cape Town, Santiago, Perth, Adelaide, San Francisco, Ankara.

Temperate Grassland
 • Location: 
The Temperate grasslands are situated in the interiors of the continents between 40° and 55° latitudes in both the hemispheres. 
• They are known by different names in different regions.
• Eurasia—Steppes
• S. America—Pampas
• S. Africa—Veldt
• Australia—Downs

Areas
• Asia — Manchuria and Russian Turkestan
• Europe — Southern part of European Russia and Hungary.
• N. America — South Central Canada and North Central USA
• S. America — North Argentina and Uruguay
• Africa — Transvaal State of S. Africa.
• Australia — Murray-Darling basin of the Province of Southern Australia.

Natural Environments
Climate
• The Northern Grasslands are situated in the interior, therefore the outstanding feature of their climate is extremeness.
• The Southern Continents have comparatively smaller east-west extent, therefore, their climate is not extreme. 
• In general, the average temperature on the Northern Grasslands ranges between 15°C to 25°C. 
• In summers, they are sufficiently warm, because there is abundant sunshine. The skies are almost cloudless. 
• This induces a rapid heating during day and rapid cooling during night. Therefore daily ranges of temperature are high.
• The winters are cold, because the regions belong to cool temperate regions. 
• The average temperatures during winters vary between –5°C and 20°C. Precipitation is, therefore, received generally in the form of snow and the ground remains snow-covered for several months.
• The Eurasian steppes are rendered exceptionally cooler by the cold northerly winds known as Buran. 
• The North America Prairies are formulate in having the warm ‘Chinook’ winds descending from the Rockies to modify the climate to a certain extent.

 
 Animal/Products
Largest population/ Production
 
1
Cattle
India, USA
2
Beef
USA, Russia
3
Milk
India, Russia
4
Cheese
USA, Russia
5
Butter/Ghee
Russia, India
6
Condensed milk
USA, Netherlands
8
Sheep
Russia, Argentina
9
Mutton and Lamb 
Russia, Austrialia
10
Goat
India, China
11
Pigs
China, Russia
12
Pork
China, USA
13
Chicken
China, Russia
14
Hen eggs
China, USA
15
Sheep skin
Russia, New Zealand
16
Cattle/Buffalo
USA, India
17
Fish
Japan, Russia


Natural Vegetation
• The Temperate Grasslands exhibit, more or less, semi-arid conditions, therefore, grass is the natural vegetation, which would subsist here.
• Winds blow unchecked on these extensive lowland areas and they are generally very strong and gusty. These grasslands are, therefore, almost treeless.
• Certain scrubs may also be seen here and there. Sagebush and Creosote bush are very good examples.

Animal Life
• The native animal life is very diverse. In different regions of the Temperate Grasslands, very different types of animals are seen. 
• In North American-Prairies ‘Bison’ was universally found.
• On the steppes of Eurasia the antelopes, wild horses, wild asses and wolves roam about.
• In the Australian Downs generally animals of marsupial variety are very common.
• Rabbits were found in very huge numbers here and they proved a great menace for the farms. Therefore, they had to be exterminated.

Cultural Environments
• The Temperate Grassland Region is basically a region of primitive nomadism. 
• The native people were either hunters, just as the Red Indians of the Prairies, or nomadic herders, just as the Kirghiz of the Asiatic Steppes.
• Therefore, these regions knew no settled life and the population was very sparse.
• Prairies are now important wheat-producing areas. Livestock ranching has replaced nomadic herding in the Australian region.
• The new economic activities, which prevail to-day are the following. Nomadic Herding, Pastoral farming, Whear farming, Mining, Manufacturing etc.
 

Primitive Peoples of Temperate Grasslands. 

This region is basically an area of nomadic people, who were Pastoral nomads.
• The most important of them are the Kirghiz, the Red-Indians and the Hottentots.
Urban Centres: Winnipeg, Chicago, Odessa, Tashkent, Buenos Aires, Johannesburg etc.
 

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