Mineral Resources (Part - 1) UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Mineral Resources (Part - 1) UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Metallic Mineral Deposits

  • Metallic minerals may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Below is a survey of India’s metal-life mineral deposits.

Iron Ore

  • India is one of the world’s best endowed countries in the magnitude and quality of iron ores.
  • She possesses over 20 per cent of the world’s total reservoirs.
  • Iron ore depositsoccur in practically every state in India, though about 96 per cent of the total reserves are con-centrated in Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Kheonjihar, Talcher and Mayurbhanj (Orissa), Madhya Pradesh, Bailadila, Karnataka and Goa; almost anequal percentage is contributed by these states to the total production of iron ore in the country.

Manganese Ore

  • India is the world’s fifth largest producer of manganese ore.
  • Manganese ore is an important ingredient in the manufacturer of iron and steel and it is basic raw material for manufacturing ferro-manganese alloy. 
  • Widely distributed in India, it occurs in almost all the geological systems in the country, although the rocks of the Gondite and Kodurite series in the Dharwar system of the Peninsula contain over 90 per cent of the country’s total reserves.
  • Rich deposits are located in A.P., Goa, Karnataka, Orissa. The largest reserves are in the Nagpur Bhandra belt in Maharashtra and at Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh.


  • Chromite is the most important ore for producing chromium metal. 
  • Chromite occurs as a product of magnetic differentiation in the form of segregation masses and veins in ultra-basic rocks like dunite, peridotite and serpentine. 
  • Most of the reserves is concentrated in the states of Orissa (Dhenkanal and Kheonjhar), Jharkhand (Singhbhum) and Bihar (Bhagalpur) Karnataka, and Maharashtra, (North Ratnagiri).


Facts To Be Remembered
  • The disease called black arm affects cotton.
  • The disease, green ear, affects bajra.
  • Wheat crop is susceptible to rust.
  • One of the pests of storage is the khapra beetle.
  • The Mehsana breed of buffalo is found mainly in Gujarat.
  • Nili is a breed of buffalo found mainly in Punjab and Haryana.
  • Surti is a breed of buffalo.
  • Rabies affects all animals.
  • Marck’s disease affects poultry birds.
  • John’s disease affects cattle all animals.
  • Most of India’s cultivated area is under sendentary cultivation.
  • Sugarcane cultivation in India is an example of—irrigated cultivation.
  • One of the most prominent crops of dry farming in India is bajra.
  • The growing of crops one after the other successively to maintain soil fertility is called crop rotation.
  • The cultivation of rice in West Bengal is an example of subsistence grain farming.
  • If rain falls only for two months, the crop best suited to the resulting conditions will be pulses.
  • Jaya is the name of a high yielding variety of rice.
  • Elevation is not very important; it is the factor of shade that is important in the case of coffee.



  • In India almost the entire production of this metal form the Kolar Gold Fields (Karnataka) is sold to the Reserve Bank of India.
  • A small quantity produced at the Hutti mines (Raichur district of Karnataka) is released for industrial purpose though the State Bank of India.
  • Gold occurs in India both in the native form as auriferous lodes and as alluvial or detrial gold in the sands and gravel of several layers. Quartz veins and lenses in the Dharwar schists contain most of the country’s reserves of gold ores.
  • Karnataka accounts for the entire production and most of the reserves of gold ore.


Facts To Be Remembered



The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) established.


Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) set up.


The Centralelectricity Authority (CEA) established.

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) Limited set up.

National Hydro-electric Power Corporation (NHPC) Limited incorporated under Companies Act 1956.


The North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO) Limited constituted.


The National Power Training Institute (NPTI) set up.


Meritorious Poductivity and Incentive Awards introduced.


The Power Finance Corporation (PFC) Limited incorporated (10 July).


The Tehri Hydro Development Corporation incorporated (12 July).


Powergrid Corporation of India established (23 October).

Energy Management Centre set up.


The Ministry of Power started functioning independently (2 July).


Accelerated Generation and Supply Programme launched (September).


The Electricity Regulatory Commission Ordinance promulgated (25 April).

The Central Electricity regulatory Commission (CERC) constituted (25 July).



Coal Mines Authority Limited set up.


Northern Coalfields Limited and South Eastern Coalfields Limited formed (November).


The first meeting of the Indo-Polish workng group on Coal held in Poland (14 October).

 Non-Conventional Energy Sources                        


Renewable energy sources recognised in India in the early 1970s.


The Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) set up.

National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) initiated.


The National Programme on Improved Chulhas launched.


Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency established.


The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources created.


Development of High Rate Biomethamation Processes approved.


The National Programme on energy recovery from urban, municipal and industrial wastes launched.

Oil And Natural Gas


Madras Refineries Limited (MRL) formed (30 December).


The Oil Industry Development Board (OIDB) set up (January).


Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) established.


Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) formed.


Numaligarh Refinefy Limited (NRL) set up at Golaghat Assam (August).


The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) established.


Copper Ore

  • Copper is one of those non-ferrous metals in which India is critically deficient and has, therefore, to depend largely on foreign supplies. Copper ores occur in India as sulphides. 
  • Though the ore has a wide occurrence, important deposits are confined to a few well-known mineralised districts in the peninsular parts.
  • It occurs both in ancient crystallines and in younger rock formations including the Cuddapahs, Bijawars and Aravallis, Outside the Peninsula, the ore is found in highly metamorphosed rocks. Areas are Agnigudula (A.P.), Chitradurga, Kalyadi, Thinthini (Karnataka), Singhbhum, Mosabani, Rakaha (Bihar), Dariba (Rajasthan).


  • India’s reserves of bauxite, the ore from which the aluminium metal is produced, are considered enough to keep the country self-sufficient for many years to come. 
  • Bauxite deposits in the country are mostly associated with laterites and occur at high plateaus except in the cases of the Katni area of Jabalpur district (Madhya Pradesh) and certain coastal tracts of Gujarat and Goa which are low-level, though major reserves occur only in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.

Lead and Zinc Ores

  • Almost the entire production of lead and zinc ores in India comes form the sulphide ores called galena and sphalerite.
  • Only the Zawar (near Udaipur) deposits of Rajasthan are being worked at present.
  • Lead is known to exist in Agnigudula (A.P.) and Sargipalle (Orissa).


  • The galena ores, particularly argentiferous ores, contains some quantity of silver, up to one per cent in some cases, and the lead-zinc ores of Zawar are the principal sources of silver in India.
  • The lead ores from Cuddapah, Guntur and Kurnool districts in Andhra Pradesh; Bhagalpur and Singhbhum districts in Bihar; Baroda district in Gujarat; Baramula district in Jammu and Kashmir; and Almora district in Uttar Pradesh are also reported to contain fair amounts of silver content.

Nickel Ore

  • Nickel ore is found in the Cuttack and Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa.


Facts To Be Remembered


India’s first modern steel plant, Tata Iron and Steel Works, set up by the late J.N. Tata at Jamshedpur.


The National Newsprint and Paper Mills Limited, Nepanagar (M.P.) started as a private venture. It was taken over by the M.P. Government in 1948.

The Indian Standards Institute (ISI) established.

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) Limited set up.


The first Industrial Policy resolution adopted by the Parliament (April).

The Industrial Finance Corporation of India established (July).


The Tariff Commission appointed by the Government of India (January).

The Visakhapatnam Shipyard acquired by the Government from the Scindia Steam Navigation Company (March).

The All-India Handicrafts Board set up (November).


The All-India Khadi and Village Industries board established (February).


The Natioinal Industrial Development Corporation established.


The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) set up (January).

The National Small Industries Corporation established (February).


The National Coal Development Corporation Limited set up.


Three integratediron and steel plants in the public sector set up at Rourkela, Bhilai and Durgapur.


The National Coal Mineral Development Corporation Limited set up (November).


The Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited incorporated.


The Unit Trust of India (UTI) Act, 1963 came into force (February).


The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) established (July).

The Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) incorporated (November).


The Monopoly and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Commission appointed.

Bureau of Industrial Gas and Prices set up.


The Centrally-sponsored District Industries Centres (DICs) programme launched.


Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute set up.


The New Industrial Policy (NIP) announced in Parliament (July).


Disinvestment Commission set up (August).

Foreign Investment Promotion Board reconstituted.


Traiff Commission constituted (September).

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