Miscellaneous - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Miscellaneous

Tribal movements

Movements, area affected & LeadersCauses and Consequences
 1. Chuar Rising (Midnapur, Bengal 1766-1772 & 1795-1816).
 2. Hos (Singhbhum 1820, 1822 & 1832).
 3. Kol uprising (Chottanagpur 1831-32) Led by Buddha Bhagat.
 4. Ahom Revolt (Assam 1828-33) led by  Gomadhar Konwar.
 5. Khasi Uprising (Khasi Hills-Assam and Meghalaya 1829-32). Led by Tirat Singh and Bar Manik.
 6. Bhils (Khandesh 1817-19, 1825, 1831, 1847).
 7. Kolis (Sahyadri Hills-Gujarat-Maharashtra 1824, 1829, 1839, 1844-48).
 8. Koyas and Konda Dara Muttadars (Rampa Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh, 1840, 1845, 1858, 1861-62, 1879-80, 1886, 1916, 1922- 24). In 1922-24 led by Alluri Sitaramaraju.
 9. Santhal uprising (Rajmahal Hills-Santhal Pargana Bihar 1855-56) led by Sidhu and Kanhu.
 10. Naikdas (Panch Mahals-Gujarat 1858-59 and 1868) led by Rupsingh and Joria Bhagat.
* Bengal famine 1760, enhanced revenue demand and economy distress. British suppressed the revolt through use of force
 * Occupation of Singhbhum by British and    exploitation of tribals. The Hos tribals were suppressed by the British.
 * The Kol resented transfer of land to     outsiders-Muslims & Sikhs. Order was restored after large military operation.
 * Attempts to incorporate Ahom territory sparked off rebellion. British adopted a pacific policy and handed upper Assam to Purander Singh Narendra.
 * Ruler of Nunklow Tirat Singh resented the    occupation of Jantia and Garo by the British. The movement was suppressed in 1833.
 * Against the new masters the company. Agrian hardship and apprehension. Finally      suppressed by the British.
 * Against the imposition of British rule and dismentlement of the forts of the Koli tribals. The revolt was finally suppressed.
 * The tribals revolted against police extraction, new excise banning home brewing of toddy, ban on shifting cultivation and exploitation by traders & money lenders. Finally     suppressed by the British.
 * Against the ill treatment at the hands of revenue officers, oppression of police and extortion of landlords and money lenders. Brought under control through excessive British military operation.
 * Against ban on use of forest for grazing and timber. They also wanted to establish their own laws ‘Dharma Raj.’

 

 Non-Tribal movements

Movements, area affected & LeadersCauses and Consequences
1. Sanyasi Revolt (Bengal 1760-1800 led by re ligious monks and dispossessed zamindars.
 2. Revolt of Velu Thampi (Travancore 1805-09) led by Velu Thampi, Dewan of Travancore.
 3. Rebellion of the Paiks (Orissa 1804-06) led by Raja of Khurda & later by Jagabandhu.
 4. Revolt of Rao Bharmal (Cutch and Kathiawar 1816) led by Rao Bharmal ruler of Kutch.
 5. Revolt of Ramosis (Poona 1822-29) leaders- Chittur Singh and Umaji.
 6. Kittur Rebellion (Kittur in Karnatka 1824- 29). Led by Channamma & Rayappa.
 7. Sambalpur Revolt (Sambalpur Orissa 1827- 40). Led by Surendra Sai.
 8. Satara Disturbances (Satara, Maharashtra 1840). Led by Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsingh Dattareya Petkar.
 9. Bundela Revolt (Bundelkhand 1842). Led by Madhukar Shah and Jawahar Singh.
 10. Gadkhari Rebellion (Kolhapur 1844-45).
* Against restrictions imposed by the English company on visit of holy places and ruin of peasant and zamindars.
 * Financial burden imposed on the state by the British through the subsidiary system. Defeat of Velu Thambi and fall of Travancore to British in 1809
 * British occupation of Orissa and resentment of Paiks against British land revenue policies. Finally suppressed by the British.
 * Interference of the British in the internal affair of Cutch. Final defeat & disposal of Rao Bharmal
 * Annexation of Peshwa’s territory by the British in 1818 resulting in large scale unemployment among Ramosis. British pardoned them after defeating them.
 * Refusal of British to recognise the adopted son of Shivalinga Rudra (Chief of Kittur) as the Chief after the death of Shivalinga and assumption of administration of Kittur by British.
 * Interference of British in the internal affairs of Sambalpur. Surendra Sai was finally arrested and imprisoned by the British (1840).
 * Deposal and banishment of Pratap Singh, the popular ruler of Satara by the British. Narsing was finally defeated and captured in 1841.
 * Resentment against British land revenue policy. Madhukar Shah and Jawahar Singh was finally captured and executed by the British
 * Assumption of direct administration of Kolhapur by British and resentment of Dadkharis against revenue policy. Final suppression of the movement by the British.

 

 Peasant movements

Peasant Movements & organisationsCauses, Aims & Characteristic

Peasant Movements & organisations
 Indigo Revolt (Bengal 1859-60) led by Bishnu Biswas and Digambar Biswas Causes.

Pabna Movement (Bengal 1870-80) led by Ishwar Chandra Roy, Shambhu Pal and Khoodi Mollah


Deccan Roits (Maharashtra 1875) Six taluks of Poona & Ahmednagar district) led by traditional headmen (Patel)

Romasi movement (Maharashtra 1879) led by Vasudev Balwant Phadke


Moplah Uprising (Malabar 1836-54, 1882-85, 1896, 1821) leaders-Sayyed Alawi & Sayyid Fazl

Bijolia Movement (Rajasthan 1905, 1913, 1916, 1927) Leaders-Sitaram Das, Vijay Pathak Singh Manik lal Verma & Haribabu Upadhya

* It was the revolt of indigo peasants against the British planters due to oppressive conditions low payment, rack renting & illegal eviction. The peasants refused to take advances and enter into contract and resented the brutality of European planters.
 * The movement rose as a result of high increase in zamindari rent. The peasant demanded changes in measurement standard, abolition of abwabs and reduction in rent.
 * The fall in the prices of cotton and a hike in land revenue forced the peasants to take loans on high rates from Gujarati and Marwari money lenders. The movement took the form of foreceful seizure & burning of debt bonds by peasants.
 * Due to hardships caused to the peasant by the Deccan famine of 1876-77. Phadke organised the Romasi peasants & revolted against the British and thought of establishing a Hindu Raj.
 * The movement arose against the vastly enhanced right of Hindu Namboodri & Nair Jenmis which had worsened the condition of Muslim lease holders and cultivators. The Moplahs. The Moplahs attacked the Jenmis property & temples but was purely agrarian in nature.
 * The movement arose due to the imposition of 86 different types of cesses on the Kisans. The peasant refused to pay cesses, and    cultivate their land and tried to migrate to migrate to neighbouring areas. In 1927, peasant adopted Satyagrah methods to fight fresh cesses & begar.
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