Q.1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(a) Its per capita income
(b) Its average literacy level
(c) Health status of its people
(d) All the above
Q.2. Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(b) Sri Lanka
Fig: Neighboring countries of India
Q.3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) Rs 7500
(b) Rs 3000
(c) Rs 2000
(d) Rs 6000
[Total income of three families = 5000 + 4000 + 3000 = 14000
Total income of four families = 5000 × 4 = 20000
Income of the fourth family = 20000 - 14000 = 6000]
Q.4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Fig: World BankAns. The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is average per capita income. The countries with per capita income of ₹ 82,40,192 per annum and above in 2013 are considered as rich countries, whereas countries with per capita income of ₹ 6,76,11.5 or less are considered as low-income countries.
Limitations of this criterion: It fails to explain how this average income is distributed among the people in the individual countries. Two countries with the same per capita income might be very different with regard to income distribution. One country might have equitable distribution of income while the other country might have great disparities between the rich and the poor.
Q.5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
(i) Has taken education, health and per capita income as the base.
(ii) Countries have been ranked.
(iii) It is also considered as a broader concept of development.
(i) It uses per capita income as its base for comparison.
(ii) It is considered as a narrow concept of development.
(iii) Under this concept countries have been divided into three categories - rich, middle and poor.
Q.6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
(a) We use averages for comparison between two countries, two persons or any two or more things.
(b) There are following limitations to the use of averages:
(i) Averages do not tell us about similarities or differences between two countries or persons or things.
(ii) By averages only one aspect income, size etc. in case of country is compared. So ‘averages' are useful for comparison but they also hide disparities. Thus, averages do not give true picture.
Q.7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans. Yes, Per capita income is not a useful criterion and should not be used to compare states for the reasons mentioned below:
(a) Money cannot buy all the goods and services that you need to live well. Income by it self is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services.
(b) There cannot be a pollution free environment in a colony of rich people unless the whole community takes preventive steps.
(c) Sometimes, it is better to have collective services like security for the whole locality or a school for all children than for a rich family.
(d) Kerala has a better human development ranking than Haryana because Kerela's, Infant Mortality Rate is 12 in comparison with 36 of Haryana. However, the per capita income of Haryana is more than that of Kerala. Per capita income in Haryana was ₹ 162034 (2015-16) whereas in Kerala it was ₹ 155516 (2015-16). The better HDI of Kerala is due to adequate basic health and educational facilities.
(e) In Bihar about half of the children aged 14-15 are not attending school up till class 8.
(f) Similarly in some states, the Public Distribution System functions well and health and nutritional status of people of such states is certainly likely to be better.
Q.8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
(1) The present sources of energy used by the people in India are as given below:
(a) Conventional sources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity.
(b) Non-conventional sources: Solar energy, wind energy and energy produced by using bio-gas, geo-thermal energy, tidal energy and wave energy.
(2) Position of energy after 50 years in India: The position of energy in India after about 50 years will not be good due to the reasons as mentioned below:
(a) The consumption of non-renewable resources at present is very high in comparison to production and reserves.
(b) The reserves for the world as a whole would last for 50 years.
(c) Countries like India depend on importing oil from abroad, because they do not have enough stock of their own.
(d) If price of oil increases, this becomes a burden for everyone.
(e) There are countries like USA which have low reserves and hence want to secure oil through military or economic power.
(i) India would be in a position to face energy crisis due to its geographical conditions.
(ii) It would be able to use renewable energy resources such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy.
Q.9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
(1) The issue of sustainability has emerged due to rapid industrialization that has led to reckless exploitation of natural resources.
(2) Stocks of natural resources are limited.
(3) If the stocks are exhausted, the progress of the future generations is likely to be in danger.
(4) Under these circumstances, the issue of sustainability has become important. And the non-renewable resources should not be used recklessly.
Q.10. "The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person". How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Ans. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. This statement is relevant to the discussion of development since both resources and development go hand in hand. For the sustainability of development, the maintenance of resources is also crucial. As the statement claims, the Earth has enough resources—renewable and non-renewable—to satisfy everyone’s needs; however, these need to be used with a view to keeping the environment protected and clean so that a balance of production and use is maintained, and shortages are avoided.
Q.11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans. Some of the examples of environmental degradation in the area are as follows:
(1) Air pollution has increased due to emission of smoke from the factories and vehicles.
(2) There is increase in water pollution due to shops and small factories in the residential areas.
(3) There is noise pollution due to use of loudspeakers at night and blowing of horns unnecessarily on the roads by different vehicles.
(4) People throw garbage wherever they want. Perhaps there is no provision for dustbins in the streets or roadsides.
(5) Sometime people urinate in the open on the roadside due to lack of public conveniences.
Q.13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
(1) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(2) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
(1) The undernourished adults in Kerala are males 8.5% and females 10% only whereas in Madhya Pradesh, it is 28% males and 28% females. It is, thus clear that the number of undernourished adults in Madhya Pradesh is higher than Kerala.
(2) Though it is argued that there is enough food in the country, around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished due to reasons as mentioned below:
(a) The Public Distribution System has failed in its objects.
(b) The average consumption is low due to poverty.
(c) Sometime there is shortage of food grains due to drought and other natural calamities.