PAGE NO. 28
Q.1. Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles.
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini (1807-1872):
(i) Mazzini was an Italian politician and revolutionary.
(ii) He sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
(iii) Mazzini was the spiritual force of the Italian resurrection. He joined the Carbonari, a revolutionary organisation and was arrested in 1830. He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
(iv) He founded two underground societies - Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne whose members were young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
(v) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservations. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
(vi) In spite of many insurrections, Mazzini failed in his objects but he has been regarded as one of the chief makers of Italy. He was responsible for the growth of patriotism for a country that existed as yet only in the imagination.
Fig: Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo di Cavour:
(i) Cavour was a realist who practiced realistic politics. He allied with France when necessary and with France’s key enemy, Prussia, when necessary.
(ii) Cavour used international power to achieve his domestic goals.
(iii) He devoted himself to the liberation of northern Italy from Austrian domination.
(iv) He was distrustful of the reactionary politics in force throughout Europe.
(v) He became Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852. He re-organized its army and it achieved rapid growth in material prosperity. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
Cavour was ultimately successful in the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II. He, however, died on June G, 18G1 before Line completion of the unification of Italy in 1870. Although Cavour was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat he played an important role in the unification of Italy.
Fig: Count Camillo di Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence:
(i) The Greek war of independence mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe.
(ii) Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th Century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821.
(iii) The object of the struggle was to expel Turks from Europe and to establish old Greek eastern empire.
(iv) Nationalists in Greece were supported by other Greeks living in exile and many West European countries.
(v) Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization. They mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war.
(vi) Ultimately, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation. Its independence was guaranteed by Russia, England and France.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament:
(i) In the German regions a large number of political associations of middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans met in the city of Frankfurt in the Church of St. Paul and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
(ii) They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarch, subject to a Parliament.
(iii) When the deputies offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Kang of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles:
(i) Artistic representations of the French Revolution show men and women participating equally in the movement.
(ii) Liberty was personified as a woman.
(iii) Liberal nationalism propounded the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe.
(iv) Women had formed their own political associations and founded newspapers.
(v) They had taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.
(vi) In France, about sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities.
(vii) The most famous was the society of Revolutionary and Republican women.
(viii) One of their main demands was to have same political rights as men had. They were, however, denied suffrage rights during the election to the Assembly.
Fig: Women in nationalist strugglesIn the Frankfurt Parliament, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
Q.2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Ans. The following steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
(a) The ideas of the fatherland (la Patrie) and the citizen (le citoyen) were introduced.
(b) A new French flag, the tri-color, was chosen to replace the earlier royal standard.
(c) The Estates-General was renamed as National Assembly.
(d) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(e) A centralized administrative system was established.
(f) Uniform laws for all citizens were formulated.
(g) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
(h) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(i) French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, became the common language of the nation. Regional dialects were discouraged.
(j) It was decided that the French nation would liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, and help other peoples to become nations.
Q.3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
(i) In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries artists portrayed nations as female figures. Thus the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
(ii) In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
(iii) Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic — the red cap, the tri - color, the cockade.
(iv) Statues of Marianne were installed in public squares to remind the public of national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
(v) Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps too.
(vi) Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, because the German oak stands for heroism.
(b) The importance of the way in which they were portrayed was to remind the public of their national symbols of unity and to persuade them to identify with them.
Q.4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
(a) The Frankfurt Parliament, which was convented in 1848, was the first major step taken towards the unification of German states. But this liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by the combined forces of the Monarchy and big landlords of Prussia. From then onwards, Prussia took over the initiative to unite Germany.
(b) This was carried out by the Chief Minister of Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck, and Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(c) His main objective was to unify Germany and this was done by three wars, which they fought over 7 years; with Austria, Denmark and France.
(d) The win led to Bismarck becoming the chancellor of North Confederation in 1867.
(e) After the win, in the Royal Palace of Versailles, the King of Prussia was crowned as the German Emperor. It symbolised the birth of a united Germany.
Fig: German unification
Q.5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Ans. There were several changes introduced by Napoleon in the administrative system, to make it more efficient, they are as follows;
(a) He established the Civil Code also known as the ‘Napoleonic Code’ in 1804. Due to this, privileges based on birth were abolished.
(b) The civil code also established equality before law and secured right to property.
(c) He also simplified the administrative division. There was abolishment of feudal system and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues.
(d) In towns, the guild system was removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
(e) Newfound freedom was thoroughly enjoyed by workers, peasants and artisans and new businessmen.
(f) Small scale producer of goods began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods-capitals from one region to another. Businessmen appreciated the benefits of uniform laws.
Q.6. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
(a) The 1848 revolution of the liberals means the revolution led by the educated middle classes in France and other parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro- Hungarian Empire.
(b) Their political, social and economic ideas are mentioned below:
(i) Political ideas: Creation of nation states based on parliamentary principles i.e., a nation to be headed by a monarchy, subject to a parliament.
(ii) Social ideas: To abolish class-based partialities and birth rights from the society. Their national goal was to abolish serfdom and pursue equality.
(iii) Economic ideas: They wanted right to property, which was important to build a nation based on political, social and economic freedom.
Fig: Revolution of 1848
Q.7. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
(a) Romanticism: A European cultural movement that aimed at developing national unity was Romanticism. It created a sense of shared heritage and a common history. Emotions, intuition and mystical feelings were some of the expressions used by the Romantic artists by which they tried to emphasize on national sentiments of the people.
(b) Folk songs, dances and poetry: They contributed to the popularizing spirit of nationalism and patriotic fervor in Europe. As folk culture was a major part of the lives of people, it carried a message of nationalism to a large and diverse population. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularized the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas as and music, by turning folk dances into nationalist symbols.
(c) Language Association: Another important factor which played a significant role was language. For example, during Russian occupation, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. In this period, Russian language was imposed everywhere and Polish was even taken out of schools. After the 1831 rebel against the Russians, large number of the polish clergy started using language as a weapon of national resistance. This was done by using Polish language in Church gatherings and religious instructions and refused to preach Russian.
Q.8. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Ans. We would be taking Germany and Italy as our two examples:
(a) Revolutionary uprising: The revolutions and uprisings of the masses in the 19th Century was led by the educated, liberal middle classes. An all-German National Assembly was formed in 1848, where middle classes from various regions of Germany came together. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military, and on losing its mass support base, it was forced to disband.
(b) Role of Leaders: Unitary Italian Republic was established due the revolutions led by leaders like Giuseppe Mazzini during the 1830s. The revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 however failed to unite Italy.
(c) Political fragmentation: The present-day nations of Germany and Italy were divided into separate regions and kingdoms, which were ruled by various princely houses till the middle of the 19th century.
(d) Unification with the help of army: After the Failures of the revolutions, the aristocracy and the army continued the process of unification of German and Italian. The Chief Minister of Prussia Otto Von Bismarck united Germany with the help of the bureaucracy and the Prussian army. The German Empire was formed in 1871.
(e) Movements of Italian State: And important role was played by the Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont similar to that played by Prussia. The Movement was led by Count Camillo de Cavour, the Chief Minister, to unite the different states of 19th century Italy in which he had the alliance of France and the support of the army. The regions conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation recognized in 1861 and in 1870, the Papal states joined in.
Q.9. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
(a) No British nation existed prior to the 18th century. The British Isles consisted of different ethnic groups like the English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. Each group followed their own cultural and political traditions. On the other side, due to the growth of wealth and importance of power in the English state, could easily extend its influence over the other states of islands. National symbols like the English language, British Flag and National Anthem were promoted to identify the nationality of the nation.
(b) No Revolution: While in France, nationalism was developed through revolutions, in Britain, it was the result of a long drawn out process.
(c) English Parliament: While other European countries like Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, etc., had to wage wars either to gain independence or to unify their countries, Britain accomplished this objective through Parliamentary Acts.
(d) The British parliament played a major role in restraining the power of the monarchy in 1688, through various bloodless revolutions. England and Scotland formed an Act of Union (1707) which laid the crux of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. English culture mainly dominated the British nation, whereas Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were slowly and systematically suppressed. Thus, unlike the rest of the Europe, nationalism came in Britain from the decisions of the people in power and not by people’s desire to unite or countrywide movements
Q.10. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Ans. One of the main reasons for the tension to emerge in Balkans was because the people aspired to nationalism. During the 19th century, major portion of Balkans was under the Ottoman Empire. They tried to adopt modern techniques to make changes in the internal backwardness of the state but they did not succeed.
(a) Ethnic Variation: The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. Their inhabitants were known as slaves.
(b) Disintegration of Ottoman Empire: A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(c) Subjugation: Soon many foreign powers attempted to subjugate these newly independent states. The Balkan people tried to claim independence by using history to prove that they had once been independent. Hence, the rebellious nationalities struggled to win back their long-lost independence.
(d) Jealousy: There was jealousy among the Balkan states and each hoped to expand their boundaries at the expense of others. During this period, the ideology of Europe was changed, the liberal feelings were narrowed down with limited ends. Intolerance followed among the groups and they were ready to fight a war.
(e) Power struggle: Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary and Britain, the European powers were interested to expand their own imperialism. Trade, colonies, naval and military powers were some of the major factors which all the European powers were struggling for. They were all very keen on controlling the hold of the other powers and extending their own.