NCERT Solutions: Unit 2 - Tenses, English Communicative, Class 10 | EduRev Notes

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Solutions: Unit 2 - Tenses, English Communicative, Class 10 | EduRev Notes

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A.1 Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below. 

Num Sentence     TenseTime            
1We are planning to go out for a picnic tomorrow.Present Continuous   Future
2India has made tremendous progress in the past few decades.Present PerfectPast
3It has been raining since morning.Present Perfect ContinuousPresent
4Could you please send your e-mail address as soon as possible?PresentPresent
5The train must have reached Delhi by now.Future PerfectFuture
6It always rains in July here.PresentPresent
7Cold wave intensifies further. (A news headline)PresentPresent
8He was playing here a minute ago.Past ContinuousPast
9She won the Student of the Year award last year.Simple PastPast
10All incomplete forms will be rejected.FutureFuture

B.1 Meaning
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the present progressive form of the given verbs.

i. “You've put on weight, Cheryl."
"Yes. I......(eat) a lot these days."
ii. "Hurry up! We ...(get) late for school."
"Just a second, please! I ...(come)."
iii. Temperatures... (rise) all over the world.
iv. “You....not...(wear) this dirty shirt to office. Wait, I'll give you another."
v. “I...not...(do) your homework-forget it. I still haven't forgotten how you fought with me in the morning."
vi. The Prime Minister ...(leave) for Russia tomorrow on a 5 day state visit.
vii. "You ...(be) very rude, Abhi."
viii. She ...always (make) excuses for coming late.
ix. Aabha... (write) a novel these days.

Answer:

  1.  I am eating (eat) a lot ...
  2. are getting
  3. are rising
  4. are not wearing
  5. am not doing
  6. is leaving
  7. are being very rude...
  8. is always making
  9. is writing

B 2. Verbs that are normally NOT used in the progressive form. 
Which sentence in each of the following pairs is acceptable and why?

1.
a. I am respecting you.
b. I respect you.

2.
a. My son loves to draw and paint.
b. My son is loving to draw and paint.

3.
a. We are having two cars.
b. We have two cars.

4.
a. I am thinking you are new to this place.
b. I think you are new to this place.

5.
a. The cake smells good.
b. The cake is smelling good.

Answer:
1. a. I am respecting you.
   b. I respect you. 

2. a. My son loves to draw and paint. 
   b. My son is loving to draw and paint.

3. a. We are having two cars.
   b. We have two cars. 

4. a. I am thinking you are new to this place.
   b. I think you are new to this place. 

5. a. The cake smells good. 
   b. The cake is smelling good.

ii. Can you explain the difference between?
1.
 a. I just can't imagine how you got into such a mess. 
 Explanation:
Non continuous action. means, I cannot guess how you got into such situation

b. You're imagining things; nothing will happen.
 Explanation: Y
ou are pretending that nothing will happen.

2.
 a. The coffee tastes bitter
 Explanation:
The coffee always has a bitter taste.

b. Mother is tasting coffee to check if it is too bitter.
 Explanation: 
Mother is testing by drinking coffee if it is too bitter or not. (continuous action)

3.
 a. My teacher admires my art work
 Explanation:
It means teacher has high or good opinion about  my art work.

b. She is admiring the latest painting I have made.
     Explanation:
Right now, she is praising my last painting.

4.
 a. The doctor is feeling the patient's pulse.
 Explanation: 
At present, the doctor is checking/touching the pulse of the patient. (continuous action)

b. The patient is feeling better.
 Explanation: 
The patient believes (physical condition) that his health is better.

B. 3 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of the given verbs.

1. Every day I(go) to school in a bus but today I (go) by car because the bus operators are on strike.
 Ans. 
Every day I go to school in a bus but today I  am going/ shall go by car because the bus operators are on strike.

2. "Baichung Bhutia (pass) the ball to Bannerjee; Bannerjee (take) a shot at the goal but it (be) way above the goal post. The Indians (attack) much more now..."
Ans. passes ... takes a shot ... it is way above ... are attacking

3. I (think) you (make) a mistake by signing this contract.
Ans.  think ... made/have made

4. The doctor (say) mother (respond) to the treatment well.
Ans. says ... is responding

5. Farzana (be) not well. She (not come) to school today.
Ans.  is not well ... will not come/has not come

B.6. As Susie, write a reply to Nikita's letter. Do take care to answer all the questions Nikita has asked you. What verb forms would you like to use?

Answer: 
Milan
25th October, 2011

Dear Nikita,

Got your letter yesterday. I am doing fine here. Good to know all of you are hale and hearty. 
My novel is almost ready. Last month was hectic as I was giving last minute finishes to the novel. I am planning its launch next month. I'll send you a signed copy of it .
Sharon is absolutely right. There is a little India in Italy. It is really amazing they teach Indian classical very much in Indian traditional way. My teacher, though an Italian by origin, has learned Bharatnatyam from famous Yamini Krishnamurti. Must say, it gives me immense happiness while performing. Despite this, I spend my day doing daily chores like you do.
I am planning to visit India this winter. Yes I'll stay at your home for full week and cherish the moments we spent in our childhood. I miss winters of Delhi, specially its 'Chai and Garam Pakodas'.
Mother is fine and progressing well. She is still receiving physiotherapy every alternate day.
There is a lot to write but it is already midnight. I'll catch you later. Give my love to kids.

Bye
Yours
Susie

C.2 Complete the following sentences by using the present perfect form of the given verbs.

a) The kids (work) really hard for the show. Now, don't cancel it, please.
b) Yippy! I (select) for the interschool dance competition!
c) I ...(contest) five elections so far.
d) John? O, he is a delightful boy. I (know) him since his childhood.
e) ...you ever (be) to the Taj Mahal?

Answer: 
a) kids have worked...
b) I have been selected ...
c) I have contested...
d) I have known him...
e) Have you...

C.4 Look at the incomplete sentences below. Using the information provided, complete each sentence using a suitable tense. 

1. 1947 until now India There _______________ (be) many wars.
2. 1991 There ________________(be) a war in the Persian Gulf.
3. 1953 Edmund Hilary and Tensing first ___________________ (climb) Everest.
4. 1953 until now India Many people ___________________ (climb) Everest.
5. 1983 India ____________ (win) the Prudential Cricket World Cup in England.
6. 1983 until now India ___________ (win) many limited-overs cricket trophies.

Answer: 

  1. There have been many wars since 1947.
  2. In 1991,  there was a war in the Persian Gulf.
  3. Edmund Hilary and Tensing first climbed Everest in 1953.
  4. Many people have climbed Everest since 1953.
  5. India won the Prudential Cricket World Cup in England in 1993.
  6. India has won many limited-overs cricket trophies since 1993.

C.5 The present perfect is often used with the following time expressions 

NCERT Solutions: Unit 2 - Tenses, English Communicative, Class 10 | EduRev Notes

Choose five of these time expressions and make sentences about interesting items of news concerning yourself.

Answer:

  1. He has never contacted us until now.
  2. So far I haven't received any call from her.
  3. I met her in this morning but I haven't met her lately.
  4. We have been to a shopping mall recently.
  5. Over the last few years petrol prices have risen sharply. 

D. Simple Past Tense-Past Perfect Tense
 D.1 Underline the main verbs in the sentences below. Then rewrite the sentences in the correct order of events.
 

1) The people began to starve.
2) In 1925 a disease destroyed the crops in one village.
3) Later, the village people came to retrieve their children
4) The chief decided to send the children of the village to live in a settlement in the next valley.
5) However, they had married outside the village.
6) This caused a war between the two villages.

Answer:

  1. In 1925 a disease destroyed the crops in one village.
  2. The people began to starve.
  3. The chief decided to send the children of the village to live in a settlement in the next valley.
  4.  Later, the village people came to retrieve their children.
  5. However, they had married outside the village.
  6. This caused a war between the two villages.

D.2 Study the following sentences. 

1) I didn't know Jim had migrated to the United States.
2) When we arrived at the theatre, the show had already begun.
3) The patient had died before the ambulance reached the hospital.
4) He had got married by the time he started working.
5) I couldn't open the locker because I had mislaid the keys.
6) Byom Bakshi felt that he had seen the man somewhere before.

As you can see, each of the above sentences describes two different actions, events or situations. Work with a partner and list them as shown in the example.

Answer:

Num.A. Occurred FirstB. Occurred Later
1.Jim had migrated to the United States.          I did not know it.
2.the show had already begunWhen we arrived at the theatre.
3.The patient had diedbefore the ambulance reached the hospital.
4.He had got marriedby the time he started working.
5.because I had mislaid the keys.I couldn't open the locker
6.that he had seen the man somewhere before.Byom Bakshi felt

Q:What verb forms have been used in (A) and (B) respectively?
Answer:
A. Past Perfect in A
B. Simple Past in B.

Q: What conclusion can you draw from your analysis?
Answer: The Past Perfect tense is used to express or inform something that happened before another action in the past.
The Simple Past tells that an action started and ended sometime in the past.

D.3 Complete the following sentences correctly by using the simple past or past perfect forms of the given verbs.

1) We ___________already ___________(reach) home when Irfan ______(say) that he _________(forget) his books at school.
 Ans. 
We _had_already _reached_ home when Irfan _said_ that he _had forgotten_ his books at school.

2) Wendy __________(wake up) late, then she ___________(miss) her school bus, so by the time she (reach) school, it ___________already________(start).
Ans. Wendy ___had woken up_______late, then she ___missed_ her school bus, so by the time she reached   school, it ___had___already__started__

3) I _______(visit) my town again ten years after I ___________ (leave) it and ________ (find) that it______ completely _______ (change).
Ans. I __visited__ my town again ten years after I ____had left___ it and __found__  that it__had_ completely __changed__ .

4) When Feroze and Mehr___________ (meet) for the first time, they__________ (not like) each other but now they are married.
Ans. When Feroze and Mehr____met___  for the first time, they___had not liked___ each other but now they are married.

D.4 Find the incorrect sentences and then rewrite them correctly. Put a tick mark () against the sentences that you think are correct.

1. By 2005, the singer recorded ten albums. ✗
Correction: By 2005, the singer had recorded ten albums. 

2. When I got to the bank, it had closed ✔

3.Timothy, the tiger, had killed five calves yesterday. ✗
Correction:  Timothy, the tiger, killed five calves yesterday. 

4. When Rehman met Mini ten years later, she grew up into a young girl. ✗
Correction:  When Rehman met Mini ten years later, she had grown up into a young girl.

5. By the time we reached the airport, the flight had left. ✔

6. We hardly went a kilometre or so when the car broke down. ✗
Correction: We had hardly gone a kilometre or so when the car broke down.

D.5 Carefully study each of the following events or situations described in a set of three sentences/phrases. Then write a short paragraph to describe each event/situation as shown in the example. Your paragraph should begin with the description of the second event in each case. Use the verb form had + past participle to describe the earliest of the past events. 

  • Somebody burgled the office on Sunday night.
  • Our arrival at work on Monday morning.
  • Police informed

We arrived at work on
Monday and found that
somebody had burgled the
office the previous night. So,
we immediately informed the police.

(I) Mayank went out with his family.
(ii) I tried to phone him this morning.
(iii) His servant answered.

I tried to phone Mayank this
morning but the servant
__________________

(i) Rohit returned from holiday.
(ii) Jayanti met Rohit.
(iii) Went to see a film.

Jayanti met Rohit, who
____________

(I) All the arrangements were finalised for the seminar.
(ii) The seminar participants arrived in Gangtok.
(iii)Met the professors from the UK the same evening.
The participants arrived in Gangtok. They found
_____________

Answer:

  • I tried to phone Mayank this morning but the servant answered the phone. He told me that Mayank had out with his family.
  • Jayanti met Rohit, who had returned from holiday. Both went to see a film.
  • The participants arrived in Gangtok. They found that all the arrangements had been finalized for the seminar. They met the professors from the UK the same evening.

G. Tenses - Summary
 Read the biodata of Sangeeta Rani Puri, India's swimming sensation. Then, complete the interview in the spaces provided. Do NOT add any extra information. Use appropriate tenses.

Answer:
Interviewer : Sangeeta, since you were in India for only a short while before you flew to Atlanta, would you tell us a little about yourself?
Sangeeta : Well, I'm an Indian and I'm proud to be one.

I: Please tell us about your parents.
S: My father, _Mr. Raj Krishna Puri, is a famous immigration lawyer and my mother, Mrs. Moyna Margaret Puri, is_  from Trinidad. 

I: Have you taken part in any of the National Championships?
S: (Very excited) Yes, I have set six new national records in five days Swimming Meet at the Junior Nationals at, Vijaywada)

I: How did you perform at Senior Nationals?
S: I won seven events and set five new national records Senior Nationals, in Kolkata in October 1995

I: How do you rate your performance in the Altanta Olympics in 1996?
S: I am proud I represented India in 50m freestyle. It's true that I did not win any medal in Atlanta. But, I had the best time of my life i.e. 29.02 seconds.

I: Have you made any plans for the future?
S: I do have. I am trying to get a Swimming scholarship and training in the USA. Also I will represent India  for as long as possible. Also I hope that I will win an Medalin the Olympics.

I: Thank you, Sangeeta. I wish you all the best.
S: Thank you very much.

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