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Control & Coordination Chapter Notes - Science Class 10


  • All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them.
  • The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc.
  • Both plants and animals respond to stimuli but in a different manner.

Systems for Control and Coordination in Animals

  • Control and Coordination in animals is done with the help of two main systems:
    (i) Nervous system
    (ii) Endocrine system

Nervous System

  • Control and coordination are provided by nervous and muscular tissues.
  • Nervous tissue is made up of an organized network of nerve cells or neurons which is specialized for conducting information via electrical impulses from one part of the body to another.


  • These are specialized tips of some nerve cells that detect the information from the environment. These are located in our sense organs.
    (i) Ear: It acts as phonoreceptors (receiving sound). It helps in hearing and maintaining the balance of body.
    (ii) Eyes: It acts as photoreceptors (receiving light). It helps in seeing
    (iii) Skin: It acts as thermoreceptors (feels temperature). It helps in feeling heat or cold and touch.
    (iv) Nose: It acts as olfactory receptors (sense of smell). It helps in the detection of the smell.
    (v) Tongue:  It acts as Gustatory receptors (sense of test). It helps in the detection of taste.

Question for Chapter Notes: Control & Coordination
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Which of the following is NOT a receptor for detecting stimuli in animals?
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It is the structural and functional unit of nervous system.
Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

Functioning of Neuron

  • The information from receptors is acquired at the end of the dendritic tip of a nerve cell as chemical reaction that creates an electrical impulse. 
  • This impulse travels from the dendrite to the cell body and then at the end of the axon. 
  • Chemicals are released at the end of the axon by the effect of electrical impulse.
  • These chemicals cross the gap (synapse) and start a similar electrical impulse in a dendrite of the next neuron.
  • The similar synapse finally allows delivery of such impulses from neurons to other cells, such as muscles cells or gland.

Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

Parts of Neuron

  • Dendrite: It acquires information.
  • Cell body: The information acquired by it travels as an electrical impulse.
  • Axon: It is the longest fibre on the cell body is called axon. It transmits electrical impulse from cell body to dendrite of next neuron.

Synapse: It is the gap between the nerve ending of one neuron and dendrite of the other neuron. Here, electrical signal is converted into chemical signal for onward transmission.

Reflex Action

  • Reflex action is quick, sudden and immediate response of the body to a stimulus.
    Example: Knee jerk, withdrawal of hand on touching hot object.
  • Stimulus: It is observable or detectable change in the external or internal environment to which an organism reacts.
  • Reflex arc: The pathway through which nerve impulses pass during reflex action is called reflex arc.

Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

  • Response: It is the final reaction after the reflex action.

Three types of responses:
(i) Voluntary: Controlled by fore brain. Example: talking, writing.
(ii) Involuntary: Controlled by mid and hind brain. Example: heart beat, vomiting, respiration.
(iii) Reflex action: Controlled by spinal cord. Example: withdrawal of hand on touching a hot object.

Need for Reflex Actions

  • In some situations such as touching a hot object, pinching etc. we need to act quickly, otherwise our body would be harmed. Here response is generated from spinal cord instead of brain. In this way, time for taking action is reduced which save us from injury.

Human Nervous System

  • Human nervous system consists of two parts, Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous system (PNS).
  • Central nervous system consists of Brain and Spinal Cord.
  • Peripheral nervous system consists of Cranial Nerves which arise from the brain and Spinal Nerves which arise from the Spinal cord.

Question for Chapter Notes: Control & Coordination
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What is the main function of a neuron in the nervous system?
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Spinal Cord

  • The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system, along with the brain. 
  • It is made up of nerves, which supply information for thinking. However, thinking involves more complex mechanisms and neural connections that are concentrated in the brain, which is the main coordinating center of the body.

Spinal CordSpinal Cord

  • The spinal cord and brain receive information from all parts of the body and integrate it. 
  • They also send messages to muscles, allowing for voluntary actions such as writing, talking, and moving objects.
  • In summary, the spinal cord plays a crucial role in transmitting sensory information to the brain and relaying messages from the brain to the muscles. It is an essential component of the nervous system, working in conjunction with the brain to coordinate various bodily functions and enable voluntary actions.

Human Brain

  • Brain is the main coordinating centre of the body. It has three major parts:
    (i) Fore-brain
    (ii) Mid-brain
    (iii) Hind-brain

Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10


  • It is the most complex or specialised part of the brain. It consists of cerebrum.
  • Functions of Fore-rain:
    (i) Thinking part of the brain.
    (ii) Control the voluntary actions.
    (iii) Store information (Memory).
    (iv) Receives sensory impulses from various parts of the body and integrate it.
    (v) Centre associated with hunger.


  • Controls involuntary actions such as change in pupil size and reflex movements of head, neck and trunk.

It has three parts:
(i)  Cerebellum: Controls posture and balance. Precision of voluntary actions. Example: picking pen.
(ii) Medulla: Controls involuntary actions. Example: blood pressure, salivation, vomiting.
(iii) Pons: Involuntary actions, regulation of respiration.

Protection of Brain and Spinal Cord

  • Protection of Brain: Brain is protected by a fluid filled balloon which acts as shock absorber and is enclosed in cranium (skull or brain box).
  • Protection of Spinal Cord: Spinal cord is enclosed in vertebral column.

Coordination between Nervous and Muscular Tissue

  • For taking place the voluntary actions, the brain has to send messages to muscles.
  • The communication between the central nervous system and the other parts of the body is facilitated by the peripheral nervous system consisting of cranial nerves arising from the brain and spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord.
  • The brain thus allows us to think and take actions based on that thinking. This is accomplished through a complex design, with different parts of the brain responsible for integrating different inputs and outputs.
    Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

Limitations of Electric communication/Nervous system

  • Electric impulse will reach only to those cells that are connected by nervous tissue.
  • After generation and transmission of an electrical impulse, the cell takes some time to reset its mechanism before transmitting another impulse. So cells cannot continually create and transmit impulse.
  • Plants do not have any nervous system.

Chemical communication

  • It helps in overcoming the limitations of electric communication.

Coordination in Plants

  • There are three types of movements in plants.
    • Independent of growth
    • Dependent on growth

1. Independent of growth

  • Independent growth has immediate response to the stimulus.
  • Plants use electrical-chemical means to convey information from cell to cell.
  • For movement to happen, cells change their shape by changing the amount of water in them, resulting in swelling or shrinking of cells.
    Example: Drooping of leaves of ‘Touch-me-not’ plant on touching it.

2. Dependent on growth

  • These movements are tropic movements i.e., directional movements in response to stimulus.
    • Tendrils: The part of tendril away from the object grows more rapidly as compared to the part near the object. This causes circulating of tendril around the object.
    • Phototropism: Movement towards light.
    • Geotropism: Movement towards/away from gravity.
    • Chemotropism: Growth of pollen tube towards ovule.
    • Hydrotropism : Movement towards water.

Question for Chapter Notes: Control & Coordination
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Which part of the brain controls voluntary actions?
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Plant Hormones

  • These are chemical compounds which help to coordinate growth, development and responses to the environment.
  • Main plant hormones are:
    • Auxin:  This hormones synthesized at shoot tip. It helps the cells to grow longer and involved in phototropism (response towards light).
    • Gibberellin: It helps in the growth of the stem.
    • Cytokinins: It promotes cell division. This is present in greater concentration in fruits and seeds
    • Abscisic Acid: It inhibits growth. It also cause wilting of leaves and also known as stress hormone.

Hormones in Animals

  • Hormones are the chemical substances which coordinate the activities of living organisms and also their growth.
    • Endocrine glands: These glands secrete their product (hormone) into the blood and the main organ for releasing the hormones.
    • The list of endocrine gland with the hormones names and their functions are given below:Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10
      (i) Thyroxine: This hormone is secreted by Thyroid. The Thyroid is located in Neck/Throat region. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
      (ii) Growth hormones: This is secreted by Pituitary (master gland). This gland is located in Mid-brain. It regulates growth and development.
      (iii) Adrenaline: This hormone is secreted by Adrenal. The adrenal gland is located above both kidneys. It regulates blood pressure (increasing), heart beat, carbohydrate metabolism (during emergency).
      (iv) Insulin: This hormone is secreted by Pancreas. The pancreas is located below stomach. It reduces and regulates blood sugar level.
      (v) Sex hormones:
      (a) Testosteron in males: This hormone is secreted by testis. The testis is located in genital area. Its changes associated with puberty (Sexual maturity).
      (b) Estrogen in females: This hormone is secreted by Ovaries. The ovaries are located in lower abdomen area. Its changes associated with puberty (Sexual maturity).

Importance of iodine

Iodised salt is necessary because iodine mineral is essential part of thyroxine hormone secreted by thyroid gland. Thyroxine regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. So, we must consume iodised salt which is necessary for proper working of thyroid gland. It’s deficiency causes a disease called goiter (Swollen neck).


  • Diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar level increases.

Cause of Diabetes

  • The disease is caused due to the deficiency of insulin hormone secreted by pancreas that is responsible to control blood sugar levels.

Question for Chapter Notes: Control & Coordination
Try yourself:
Which hormone regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins?
View Solution

Treatment of Diabetes

  • Injections of insulin hormone can help in the treatment of diabetes.

Feedback Mechanism

  • The excess or deficiency of hormones has a harmful effect on our body. Feedback mechanism makes sure that hormones should be secreted in precise quantity and at right time.
    Example: Feedback mechanism to control the sugar level in blood is as follows:

Control & Coordination Chapter Notes | Science Class 10

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FAQs on Control & Coordination Chapter Notes - Science Class 10

1. What is control and coordination in biology?
Ans. Control and coordination in biology refer to the physiological mechanisms through which living organisms maintain internal balance and respond to external stimuli. It involves the integration of various body systems to ensure proper functioning and adaptation to the environment.
2. How does the nervous system control and coordinate body activities?
Ans. The nervous system controls and coordinates body activities through the transmission of electrical signals called nerve impulses. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, and a network of nerves that carry information to and from different body parts. The brain processes sensory inputs, initiates appropriate responses, and sends signals through the nerves to effectors, such as muscles or glands, for a coordinated response.
3. What are the main components of the human nervous system?
Ans. The main components of the human nervous system are the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. The PNS further divides into the somatic nervous system (voluntary control) and the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control).
4. How do hormones control and coordinate body functions?
Ans. Hormones control and coordinate body functions through chemical signaling. They are produced by various endocrine glands and released into the bloodstream to act on target cells or organs. Hormones regulate processes such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and response to stress. They work by binding to specific receptors on target cells, initiating a cascade of biochemical reactions that ultimately bring about the desired effects.
5. What are the major differences between the nervous system and the endocrine system in terms of control and coordination?
Ans. The major differences between the nervous system and the endocrine system in terms of control and coordination are: - Nervous system: It uses electrical signals (nerve impulses) to transmit information quickly over short distances. It provides rapid, precise, and localized control over body activities. - Endocrine system: It uses chemical messengers (hormones) to transmit information slowly over long distances through the bloodstream. It provides slower, widespread control over body activities and can exert long-lasting effects. - Nervous system responses are usually short-lived, while endocrine system responses can be long-lasting. - The nervous system is involved in voluntary and involuntary actions, while the endocrine system mainly regulates involuntary functions and long-term processes.
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