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NCERT Summary: Urban Livelihoods - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 6 - Class 6

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  • There are more than five thousand towns and twenty seven big cities in India. 
    • Big cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata etc. have more than a million people living and working here.
  • The main reason for the increase in number of towns is migration. 
  • Villagers move to cities because of better facilities such as water, electricity, sanitation, education for children, employment opportunities, etc.

In the Market

  • There are almost one crore 'street vendors' in the country working in urban areas.
  • There are many people who own shops in various markets of the city. 
    • These shops may be small or large and they sell different things.
  • Most business-persons manage their own shops or business. 
    • They employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers.

In the Factory-Workshop Area

  • People employed in factories are mostly casual workers (called to work and have to leave according to the availability of work).
    • Casual workers have to work long hours in poor conditions without job security and other benefits.

In the office area

  • Many workers in the city who work in offices, factories, and government departments where they are employed as regular and permanent workers.
  • They attend the same office or factory regularly. 
  • They get a regular salary.
  • Unlike casual workers they will not be asked to leave if the factory does not have much work.
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